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♦ Published in Hollywood 
by the 

American Society of Cinematographers 

September 1933 

PRICE 25c 

is issue 

Spectroscopic Photography 
Practical Side of Laboratory 
Purpose of Diffusion 
. . . and other features 

£ or the amateur 

Equipping Home 16 mm. 

Cinemicroscopy with 16 mm. 
Slow Motion in Athletics 
Miniature Negative and Crain 
. . . and other features. 

In Bright Sunlight or Deep Shadow 
Under Incandescent or Arc Light 

M&6 V 9 PAT OFP 



Will Give a Better Result Than 
Is Otherwise Obtainable 


trade - mark has never been 
placed on an inferior product. 


6656 Santa Monica Boulevard 

HOLLYWOOD :: :: :: 

Pacific Coast Distributors for 


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September 1933 

9 American Cinematographer 




A Technical and Educational publication 
of motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by the 

Suite 1222 Guaranty Building, 

Hollywood, California. 

Telephone Granite 4274. 

JOHN ARNOLD, President, A. S. C. 


Volume XIII SEPTEMBER, 1 933 Number 5 

What to Read 

FUTURE of Spectroscopic Photography 

by Captain F. N. Williams 166 

PRACTICAL Side of Laboratory Work 
by Fred Cage, A.S.C 168 


by Emery Huse, A.S.C 169 

SPECIAL Effect Use of Filters 

by Hartley Harrison 170 

THE Purpose of Diffusion 

by Charles B. Lang, A.S.C 171 

NEW Method of Camera Silencing 
by William Stull, A.S.C 172 

WHEELS of Industry 174 

RECENT Patents 199 

Next Month 

• The Final Installment of the Emery Huse 
series of articles on Sensitometric Control will 
be given you. There will be another article on 
filters by Hartley Harrison. The History of 
Process Photography will be discussed by an 
expert. Other articles of timely interest . . . 
new equipment and methods pursued by the 
Hollywood Cinematographers will be given you. 

ESTABLISHED 1918. Advertising Rates on appli- 
cation. Subscription: U. S. $3.00 a yeer; Canada 
$3.50 a year; Foreign, $4.00 a year, single copies 25c. 
COPYRIGHT, 1933, by American Society of Cine- 
matographers, Inc. 

The Staff 


Charles J. VerHalen 


Emery Huse, A. S. C. 


William Stull, A. S. C. 


Walter Blanchard 
Karl Hale 


Victor Milner, A. S. C. 
Chas. G. Clark, A. S. C. 
Hatto Tappenbeck, A. S. C. 
Jackson J. Rose, A. S. C. 
Fred Gage, A. S. C. 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr., A. S. C. 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich, A. S. C. 
Dr. L. A. Jones, A. S. C. 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees, A. S. C. 
Dr. W. B. Rayton, A. S. C. 
Dr. Herbert Meyer, A. S. C. 
Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C. 


Georges Benoit, 100, Allee Franklin, 
Pavillions-sous-Bois. France. Seine. Tele- 
phone LeRaincy 13-19. John Dored, Riga, 
Latvia. Herford Tynes Cowling, 1430 Mon- 
roe Avenue, Rochester, N. Y. 


S. R. Cowan, 19 East 47th St., New York 
City. Phone Plaza 3-0483. 

Neither the American Cinematographer nor 
the American Society of Cinematographers 
is responsible for statements made by au- 
thors. This magazine will not be responsible 
for unsolicited manuscripts. 


American Cinematographer 9 September 1933 

oJfyt. G.M. 

modernizes with 

Bell and Howell 

oA utomatic 
Sound Production 

I llustrated is one of the five B & H Automatic 
Sound Production Printers which will equip the 
the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Culver City laboratory 
with the most modern printing production facilities 
to be had. Operating 23 to 23 hours a day, instead 
of the usual maximum of 20 hours, these new B & H 
Printers will turn out for M-G-M, in record time, 
millions of feet of the finest sound prints, charac- 
terized by perfect uniformity. 

While designed for quantity production, these 
printers give vastly finer control of print density and 
quality than has heretofore been possible. Sound and 
picture are printed at one operation under fully auto- 
matic interlocking control. The machines are ruggedly 
built, yet constructed to a precision of adjustment 
equal to that of a fine watch. 

Write today for the story of this B & H Pro- 
duction Printer and learn why M-G-M turned over 
their production job to these machines. 

A New Filmo Projector 
for Mid-day Brilliance 

Here is realism as you have never 
seen it before in personal movies 
— a brilliance in projection that 
completes the illusion of witnes- 
sing something that is alive, real. 
Powered with a new 750-watt, 
100-volt lamp, the new Filmo JS 
Projector recreates sunshine and 
artificial illumination in the full 
richness of the original scene. 

Besides unequalled illuminating 
power and the resultant brighter 
pictures, the Filmo JS offers all 
of the modern refinements of the 
famed Filmo JL Projector. It is 
fully gear-driven, re-winds auto- 
matically at the touch of a lever, 
and with a score of other refine- 
ments frees the showing of ycur 
movies of all fuss and bother. 

Filmo JS 750-watt Projector, $310 

BELL & HOWELL t- t t 

1848 Larchmont Ave., Chicago; 11 West 42nd St., New York; | | j I ^ M 

71 6 North La Brea Ave., Hollywood; 320 Regent St., London 
( B & H Co., Ltd.) Established 1907 

NRA Member 

Personal Movie Cameras and Projectors 






September 1933 9 American Cinematographer 



Abel, David 
Allen, Paul H. 

Arnold, John 

Bell, Chas. E. 

Benoit, Ceorges 
Boyle, John W. 
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. 

Chancellor, Philip M. 
Clark, Daniel B. 
Clarke, Chas C. 
Cowling, H. T. 

Daniels, Wm. H. 
Davis, Chas. J. 
DeVinna, Clyde 
DeVol, Norman 
Dored, John 
Dubray, Jos. A. 
Dupar, E. B. 

Dupont, Max 
Dyer, Edwin L. 

Dyer, Elmer C. 

Edeson, Arthur 

Fildew, William 
Fisher, Ross C. 

Folsey, Ceo. J., Jr. 
Freund, Karl 

Caudio, Gaetano 
Gilks, Alfred 
Good, Frank B. 

Haller, Ernest 
Herbert, Chas. W. 
Hilburn, Percy 
Horne, Pliny 
Hyer, Wm. C. 

Jackman, Dr. Floyd 
Jackman, Fred 
June, Ray 
Jansen, W. H. 

Kershner, Glenn 
Koenekamp, H. F. 

Lang, Chas. B., Jr. 
Lockwood, J. R. 
Lundin, Walter 

MacWilliams, Glen 
Marsh, Oliver 
Marta, Jack A. 
Miller, Arthur 
Milner, Victor 
Mohr, Hal 

O’Connell, L. Wm. 

Palmer, Ernest 
Perry, Harry 
Polito, Sol 
Pomeroy, Roy 
Powers, Len 

Rees, Wm. A. 

Roos, Len H. 

Rose, Jackson J. 
Rosher, Chas. 
Rosson, Harold 

Schneiderman, Geo. 
Schoenbaum, Chas. 
Scott, Homer 
Seitz, John F. 

Sharp, Henry 
Shearer, Douglas G. 
Sintzenich, Harold 
Smith, Jack 
Snyder, Edward J. 
Stengler, Mack 
Struss, Karl 
Stull, Wm. 

Stumar, Charles 

Tappenbeck, Hatto 

Van Buren, Ned 
Van Trees, James 
Varges, Ariel 

Wagner, Sidney C. 
Walker, Joseph 
Walker, Vernon L. 
Warrenton, Gilbert 
Wenstrom, Harold 
Westerberg, Fred 
Wilky, L. Guy 
Wrigley, Dewey 
Wyckoff, Alvin 

Zucker, Frank C. 


Mr. Emery Huse 
Mr. Fred Gage 
Dr. W. B. Rayton 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees 

Dr. Lloyd A. Jones 
Dr. V. B. Sease 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr. 

Dr. Herbert Meyer 

* Membership by Invitation Only. 


Victor Milner, Arthur Miller, William Stull, 
Dr. Herbert Meyer, John Arnold, John F. 
Seitz, Emery Huse. Dr. L. M. Dieterich 




JOHN ARNOLD President 

VICTOR MILNER First Vice-President 

CHARLES C. CLARKE Second-Vice-President 
ELMER C. DYER Third Vice-President 




John Arnold 
Charles G. Clarke 
Elmer Dyer 
Frank Good 
Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Arthur Miller 
George Schneiderman 

William Stull 

John W. Boyle 
Daniel B. Clark 
Alfred Gilks 
Fred Jackman 
Victor Milner 
Hal Mohr 
John F. Seitz 


Philip E. Rosen 
Gaetano Gaudio 
James Van Trees 
John W. Boyle 
Fred W. Jackman 

Hal Mohr 
Homer Scott 
John F. Seitz 
Daniel B. Clark 
Arthur Webb, 
General Counsel 


Mr. Albert S. Howell, Chicago 


John Arnold 
Frank Zucker 
Charles Bell 
Charles J. Davis 
Paul H. Allen 
Georges Benoit 
Glenn MacWilliams 
Ariel V'arges 

Max B. 

Herford T. Cowling 
Edwin L. Dyer 
Charles W. Herbert 
Mack Stengler 
Ross Fisher 
John Dored 
Philip M. Chancellor 
W. H. Jansen 



Daniel B. Clark Elmer G. Dyer 

John W. Boyle Ned Van Buren 

William Stull 


Charles G. Clarke Alfred Gilk* 

George Folsey 


John W. Boyle 
Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Alvin Wyckoff 

Frank B. Good 
Vernon Walker 


Hal Mohr James Van Trees 

Fred W. Jackman 


American Cinematographer • September 1933 

S PECTROSCOPIC photography or what is more com- 
monly known as infra-red photography, has great pos- 
sibilities both from aerial survey and military stand- 
points. However, its greatest value lies in its use in time 
of war. Wth proper equipment, it will be possible to pho- 
tograph Army and Fleet movements from great distances 
and through this use, it will render the present smoke screen 
used for concealing fleet and army movements practically 
useless. It is also possible to determine the number of 
planes in any attack groups approaching strategic points long 
before those planes reach the point where they can discharge 
their bombs. This may be accomplished in conjunction 
with the sound detecting devices now developed and in use. 
The plane detectors will give the general direction in which 
to train the camera and after the exposure is made, the film 
may be developed in two minutes by a device now being 
worked out, then signals may be dispatched to the opposing 
forces with the necessary information. 

For several months I have devoted much time in con- 
ducting experiments that always become necessary when a 
device or process of this type is brought to a point where 
the ordinary lay photographer may use it with accuracy. As 
soon as this process is perfected, military pilots will be able 
to use the spectroscopic camera with a very short period of 

To support my theory of the value in the development 
of spectroscopic photography, I submit a photograph of New 
York City taken from a distance of sixty air miles and from 
an altitude of 2,107 feet, near Port Jervis, Pennsylvania. 
This photograph was taken with camera of my own design, 
also shown here. The lens used with this camera is a 
Schneider Aprochromatic, having a focal length of 75 cm. 
It is not only a process lens but one corrected for color and 
infra-red rays as well. The speed of this lens at full aper- 
ture is F/9. However, the above photograph was made with 
an aperture opening of only F/18 and exposed for a period 
of one second. 

The plates and spectroscopic filters used were products 
of the Eastman laboratories; the spectroscopic plates being 
specially coated with infra-red emulsion are extremely sensi- 
tive to all light and have a speed in excess of the super- 
sensitive panchromatic now on the market. 

The filter used was an 89 and one of the densest filters 
used in this type of work. It permits only light waves in 
excess of 80 mili microns to enter the camera lens. These 
waves are some one hundred units beyond the vision of the 
human eye, therefore, giving the lens a powerful haze cut- 
ting property. This combination was found to give ex- 
cellent results for extreme long range photography work. 
The other infra-red filters and the ordinary lenses are prac- 
tically useless for these great distances. 

In examining the camera presented here, it will be no- 
ticed that the rear sighting vein is a very high grade and 
accurate compass. This is necessary for long range pho- 
tography as the object to be photographed in this instance, 
was beyond the vision of the eye even with the aid of a 
powerful telescope. At once it is apparent that to get the 
object in a direct line with the camera, it is necessary to 
make compass corrections. I shall give you herewith a brief 
outline of methods used in plotting the camera’s course in 
making photographs of this nature. First, lay off on a hy- 
drographic office map with the aid of a parallel ruler a 
true course. When this is accomplished, correct your com- 
pass for variation error. The amount of this variation, as it 
is called, will be given on the compass rose of your chart 

Photo of New York City taken with 
infra-red plate from a distance of 60 air 
miles and from an altitude of 2,107 
feet, near Port Jarvis, Pa. 

Future of 

and it must be applied accordingly. If the variation is East, 
the difference must be added to your observed bearing. If 
the variation is West, it must be subtracted from your ob- 
served bearing. This variation error, however, is not the 
only error to be considered in photographic work. If one 
is making his shots from an aeroplane, it will be necessary 
for him to consult the deviation chart in the plane. As a 
rule, the compasses installed in aeroplanes are calibrated 
for deviation (compass error due to magnetic influence of 
motor or parts constructed of iron.) If the variation has 
not been included in this correction, it will be necessary to 
apply it in accordance with the rule laid down above. If 
the photographer has been careful in the construction of his 
long range camera and has not included any material of a 
magnetic nature in its construction, it will not be neces- 
sary to consider the deviation error provided he is taking 
still shots of distant objects from mountain tops, but one 
must be sure that all metal objects have been removed from 
one’s person, such as steel pocket knives, keyrings, etc. 

A careful study of the following examples will aid you 
in making your compass corrections. 

Example 1 : A bearing taken by a compass free from devia- 
tion is 76°; variation, 5° W. ; required true bearing, the 
answer, 7 1 °. 

Example 2: A bearing taken by compass is 153° devia- 

tion on that heading, 3° W. variation in that locality 12° 
East; required true bearing; answer 162°. 

The infinity point of such a lens as described in this 
article is approximately 700 feet. However, I recommend 
that in fixing the infinity point for long range work, the 
photographer use some object that is in excess of 2,000 
feet distance. It is also recommended that when the pho- 
tographer has determined the point of infinity he rack the 
plate 1 /'64th of an inch closer to the lens. This procedure 
becomes necessary due to the change of focal length of 
the lens just described when the spectroscopeic filter has 
been added to the lens. For long range work, I recommend 

September 1933 9 American Cinematographer 


Capt. F. M. Williams and his Invisibe 
Ray Camera with which he took shot on 

opposite page. 




Captain Flavel M. Williams" 

In charge of Radio Communication with Byrd Arctic Expedition 

that the filter be placed between the two lens units and 
never in front of the lens. If it is not found practical to 
place the filter in position just described, it will be prefer- 
able to affix the filter to the rear of the lens inside the 
camera. It is never necessary to use over-large plates or 
films, for the picture shown here was made on a 9x12 em. 
plate. At sixty miles distance with a 75 em. lens, the 
width of the range covered in this photograph was in ex- 
cess of fifteen miles. 

The Empire State Building shown here with its height of 
more than 1,200 feet, appears on the film as a very tiny 
object not more than lA-inch in height; therefore, it is 
readily understandable, why for long range work, the use 
of an over-large plate is an uncalled for expense. 

Inasmuch as we are now making progress in exploring 
the stratosphere, it may be possible in the near future, to 
attain heights in excess of 100,000 feet without any un- 
due difficulty. When this is accomplished, spectroscopic 
photography will come into its own, as the greater the 
height from which the photograph is made, the greater the 
military possibilities this method has. 

The only limit in making long range photographs is con- 
trolled by the altitude of the observer, as he must attain 

* just returned from an eight months’ aerial survey of the Nica- 
raguan-Honduran countries. 

sufficient height to overcome the curvature of the earth’s 
surface. I give herewith a table of heights compared to 
spectroscopic photographic ranges: 


Distance in 

in feet 

Statute Miles 
























21 1.7 







After having scanned these tables it at once becomes 
apparent that it is perfectly feasible when one has attained 
an altitude of 50,000 feet, to photograph New York City 
from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Through these experiments we are constantly stepping up 
the speed of the spectroscopic plates, but there still re- 
mains much research work to be done along these lines. 
Therefore, it is my opinion that every American who has 
the patriotic spirit and the welfare of his nation at heart, 
should avail himself of the opportunity to carry on experi- 
ment along the lines given here, as it is only through the 
experimentations of numerous photographers that it will 
be possible to solve this process of photography within a 
relatively short time. 

The cost of the equipment necessary to make long range 
photography is not great, and any person interested in pho- 
tography of this nature, having moderate means, can carry 
on this work. 

The American nation being a peace-loving people, it is 
of great importance that we leave nothing undone to pro- 
mote peace and our present Government’s peaceful atti- 
tude toward foreign nations and their desire to bring peace 
and prosperity to our people, shows the very finest humane 
spirit and we of the American nation, hope for nothing 
better than to forever rid this world of wars and conflicts, 
but you and I know beyond a doubt, that this is practically 
an impossibility as war is the principal evolution process 
of keeping the population of the earth within certain limits. 
It is well for all countries to jmprove medjcal science and 
skill to prolong the lives of their respective nationals, but 
when certain nations deliberately give bonuses and offer 
prizes for the largest families, they have but one objective, 
and that is, attaining military supremacy. Nations that are 
practicing these methods at present will soon become over- 
populated. Over-population means expansion. Expansion 
means the conquest of foreign lands, therefore, the United 
States and her possessions are the logical lands for these 
invasions. Then at once it becomes apparent to the Ameri- 
can people that in order to build up our defense and place 
ourselves in a position where we could adequately defend 
ourselves from such an invasion, we must not leave any 
stone unturned in the development of all implements and 
equipment that have a military value. 

I shall gladly forward any information desired, concern- 
ing the equipment I have used in this work. 


American Cinematographer # September 1933 

Fred Cage, A.S.C. 

Practical Side 
of Laboratory 


Fred Cage, A.S.C. 

Laboratory Superintendent, 
Warner Bros. -First National Studio 

T HE old saying that “all roads lead to Rome’’ is cer- 
tainly applicable to the motion picture business. In 
almost every branch of the industry one will find 
amazing differences in the methods used by various work- 
ers in producing equally successful results: therefore, the 
discussion of almost any phase of the business should prop- 
erly be prefaced by the frank admission that it represents 

but one man’s individual opinion. Certainly, the present 
discussion of the practical operation of a motion-picture 
processing plant must be understood as representing solely 
the opinion of the author; an opinion gained from many 
years of successful practice, perhaps, but none the less one 
that is open to controversy, since many other laboratories 
operate on quite different plans, with acknowledged success. 

Broadly speaking, the function of a studio laboratory is 
to develop the negative film — both picture and sound-track 
— to definite standards of density, contrast and quality, and 
to make therefrom “daily’’ and release-prints of maximum 
quality, as expeditiously and economically as is possible. 
Considered in the abstract — and especially in view of the 
extreme competence of all the cinematographers placed in 
charge of photographing production — it should be possible, 
even advisable, for a laboratory to function almost in the 
manner of a machine. Viewed in this light, the camera- 
man, knowing exactly the requirements and characteristics 
of the laboratory processing his film, should be able to 
govern himself and his work so as to absolutely co-ordinate 
his product with the laboratory’s norm. If such a condi- 
tion could obtain, it would be very nice for all concerned, 
for everything could be done with a minimum of effort! 
Unfortunately, however, practical experience shows that 
such a state of affairs — desirable though it might be — is, 
if not absolutely impossible, at least highly impractical. 

Cinematography, as practiced in the studios, is an Art; 
hence it demands individualized treatment to a greater or 
less degree. Moreover, there is inevitably a considerable 
varation in the technique of individual cinematographers — 
which calls for a corresponding variation in the laboratory 
treatment of their work. In addition to this the exigen- 
cies of production cinematography frequently give rise to 
conditions beyond the control of the cinematographer, which 
call for further modification of the methods of the lab- 

With this in mind, the laboratory methods used in the 
Warner Brothers-First National Studio Laboratory have been 
made extremely flexible, while none the less maintaining 
very definite normal standards. While some of our methods 
differ to a greater or less extent from those of other labora- 
tories, they have proven themselves ideally suited to our 
requirements: they permit at once a high degree of standard- 
ization and an exceedingly desirable flexibility not always 
found elsewhere. In part, they are the result of careful 
planning; in part the happy result of more or less uncon- 
trollable circumstances. 

In the first place, our plant is, I believe, the only large 
laboratory in America using the drum system for negative 
development. Strange as it may seem in these days of 
universal machine development we have found this system so 
completely preferable to any other method that we have 
definitely decided to continue it. Our adoption of the drum 
system was more or less fortuitous: like most of the other 
plants, a few years ago, we had always used the rack-and- 
tank system for negative developing; but the studio’s switch 
to sound came with extreme suddenness, giving us but a 
week to prepare for sound-production and 1000-foot lengths 
of film. To procure and set up developing machines in so 
short a time was obviously impossible, and accordingly our 
present 1000-foot capacity drums were built, with shallow 
solution-tanks fed by a circulating system in which the 
strength and temperature of the solutions could be con- 

(Continued on Page 195) 

September 1933 9 American Cinematographer 



Control In 
the Processing 
of Motion 
Picture Film 


* Emery Huse, A.S.C. 

Editor's Note: This is the third in a series of articles by 
Emery Huse, A.S.C., on Sensitometric Control. The last in- 
stallment will be published in the October issue and will 
deal with positive and sound negative control. 

T WAS previously discussed in some detail that there are 
in existence in Hollywood two different methods of 
developing negative, namely, the constant time method 
and the test system. Under this general heading of nega- 
tive control such data will be discussed as applies to the 
constant time of development method. For that purpose 
the writer has obtained from one of the major Hollywood 
laboratories an exact copy of the sensitometric operations in 
the development of their production negative during an 
entire night. 

It is the procedure in this laboratory to begin production 
negative development around 5:30 P.M. The procedure 
which will be described here is a nightly occurrence. 
Early in the afternoon the circulating system of the nega- 
tive developing machines is turned on. After it has had 
time to thoroughly recirculate, which usually takes about 
an hour, sensitometric control strips, consisting of expos- 
ures on negative film of the same kind and type as used for 
their picture work and exposed in the Type 1 1 - b sensito- 
meter under the negative set-up conditions, are developed. 
These strips are put through to determine the time of de- 
velopment necessary to produce the predetermined negative 
control gamma. If these first strips give values which de- 
part from the desired condition, another series of strips are 
then developed under slightly altered conditions. Once the 
desired gamma is attained the time of development which 
was necessary to produce this gamma is considered the nor- 
mal time of development for that night’s run. At intervals 
of approximately one-half hour, together with the production 
work, further sensitometric control strips are developed. 
This procedure is followed during the course of the night. 
If at any stage during the development, gamma increases 
or decreases to any marked degree, the time of develop- 
ment is altered or replenisher is added to compensate for 
the change. 

This laboratory in question submitted data as obtained 
during the production run on March 29, 1933. The first 

*Paper delivered by Mr. Huse at April, 1933, S.M.P.E. Convention. 

two tests which were put through after the circulating sys- 
tem had been in operation for a while were developed for 
the time which had been normal on the previous night. 
In this instance the time was 10’ 37”. These first two 
tests went through the developing machine at 3:00. It so 
happened that these tests gave, upon plotting, a gamma 
value of .62. If the gamma value obtained in such a test 
falls between the limits of .60 and .65 the time of de- 
velopment required to do this is selected as normal. Inas- 
much as these first two tests at 3:00 gave a gamma of .62 
and a further test at 5:26 likewise gave the same gamma, 
production negative was immediately fed into the machine 
and the night’s run was begun. From 5:26 P.M. until 
12:00 midnight sensitometric strips were put through the 
system at half hour intervals together with production and 
likewise with a sample of test negative made under con- 
ditions as described earlier in this paper. In Table 3 are 
given the exact data as obtained sensitometrically during 
the night, which includes the densities of each individual 
strip together with the gamma obtained and showing also 
the amount of footage which was developed between suc- 
cessive tests. These data when plotted gave curves of the 
type indicated in Figure 6. For the sake of brevity the two 
curves shown represent the strips which went through at 
5:26 and 12:00 midnight. These were the first and 
last strips developed. It will be observed that there is a 
difference of .02 in gamma between these two tests, the 
12:00 curve showing the lower value. From the stand- 
point of density if one individual step of the H and D strip 
is chosen, for example step 11, it will be observed that 
there is a maximum density change of .08. During that 
night approximately 30,000 feet of negative were put 
through the solution. These data are for one of the two 
negative developing machines which are normally in opera- 
tion each night at this laboratory. 

From the standpoint of replenisher, an average of eight 
gallons per hour of double strength developer, minus bro- 
mide, was fed into the system. If at any stage during the 
development gamma or density had dropped appreciably, 
one of two things would have happened, either the time 
of development would have been increased or the rate of 
replenishment increased. Inasmuch as the maximum dens- 
ity change amounted to only 10%, which is equivalent to 
approximately one Bell and Howell printer point in speed, 
and furthermore inasmuch as gamma had changed less than 
5%, the same time of development and the same rate of 
replenishment was maintained throughout the night. 

This sample of data from the laboratory in question rep- 
resents an average condition. These data were not selected 
to represent either a good or bad night’s work. The slight 
development differences which existed between negatives 
developed during this night required very little unnecessary 
manipulation in timing or printing. Naturally, all scenes of 
all cameramen did not print alike, but all negative was 
well within the normal printing range. 

(Continued on Page 192) 


American Cinematographer 9 September 1933 

The same exposure was used in all of these illus- 
trations regardless of filter . . . the subjects are 
color wedges with the color on each being heavi- 
est at top and lightest at bottom. The top illus- 
tration is without filter . . . the filters used on 
other illustrations are indicated. 

Sp ecial Effect 
Use of Filters 
Part III 


Hartley Harrison 

Editor’s Note: This is the third in the series of articles on 

this subject by Hartley Harrison, well-known manufacturer 
of color and effect filters. 

W E previously discussed the relationship of col- 
ored filters to colored objects and their applica- 
tion in the creation of one of the common special 
effects — night scenes. 

We have not, however, determined the density of the fil- 
ter to be used under various conditions; whether a very 
dense filter should be used for a certain effect or whether a 
lighter filter would serve the same purpose. 

The first consideration in deciding upon the density of 

the filter to be used is to take into consideration the rela- 
tive contrast of the various objects in the scene. 

We know that a “selective” color filter is only selective 
when there is color for it to select from. If the scene has 
nothing but blacks, grays and white there is no colored fil- 
ter that will change their relative balance which cannot be 
done with a change of exposure. 

Therefore, as we are dealing with color contrast the 
question is, how much color have we and in what direction 
do we wish to change the relative contrast; shall it be lighter 
or darker? We are, of course, assuming a normal exposure 
at all times and changing the contrast with filters only. 

There are three different contrasts that can be achieved 
with filters, depending upon the scene to be photographed. 
If the scene consists of only one color and either black or 
white we can increase the contrast of that color as it is re- 
lated to either black or white, or we can reduce the con- 
trast of that color in its relation to black or white; if the 

scene has two colors and black or white, or three colors, we 
can then increase the contrast of one color, reduce the con- 
trast of a second color relative to a third color or relative 

to black or white. 

If the purpose of a particular effect is to increase the 
relative contrast of one color; say blue relative to white — 
for instance, blue sky to white clouds — then the density re- 
quired of a color filter is a density sufficient to stop the 
amount of blue in the sky. If we use a fairly light yellow 
filter on such a scene we would get all the contrast pos- 
sible as this filter is “minus blue” and we are using two 
colors, red and green, to hold back the blue. 

Should we desire to reduce the contrast and we had the 
same photographic subject, the blue sky and white clouds, 
we would use a blue filter to give us the greatest reduction 
of contrast. This blue filter would permit the blue of the 
sky to come through, but would hold back the green and 
red in the white clouds. However, in an instance of this 
nature it required a much heavier blue filter to hold back 
the red and green than is called for when the action is 
just the reverse; that is, it would not require as heavy 
yellow filter (which is composed of red and green) to hold 
back the blue. Putting it into a few words, the rule is that 
two colors of a light density are as effective in holding back 
one color, as one color of a much heavier density is effective 
in holding back two colors. 

Generally there are at least two colors to deal with in 
the average scene in addition to grays and whites and this 
makes the third step we can take in securing contrast a 
bit more involved. 

You will secure a more comprehensive idea of what con- 
trasts can be secured by referring to the illustrations of the 
color wedges which accompany this article. In the one 
which was photographed without a filter you will notice it 
has three shades of gray relative to the white background. 
Then if you will look at the one photographed through the 
light red filter you will note that the blue and green is 
darker than the red, but the red is grayer than the back- 
ground. With this filter we have increased the relative 
contrast between the blue, green and red, as well as the 
contrast between the blue, green and the background. 

In the illustration where the dark red filter was used, 
although the background is darker than the background 
taken with the light red filter, you will find that the con- 
trast of the blue and green was increased relative to the 
background, but the red has now been reduced so far that 
it is the same shade as the background. This gives us an- 

( Continued on Page 197) 

September 1933 9 American Cinematographer 


The Purpose 
and Practice 
of Diffusion 


Charles B. Lang, Jr., A.S.C. 

D IFFUSION is undoubtedly one of the most valuable 
aids to good dramatic cinematography ever developed. 
Unfortunately, however, the purpose of diffusion is 
by no means universally understood, and it is all too fre- 
quently practiced unsystematically. To' put it another way, 
too many able cinematographers are prone to use diffusing 
media indiscriminately, without a clear comprehension of 
why, how, and how much to diffuse. It is the hope of this 
writer that this slight discussion of the subject, necessarily 
brief though it must be, may at least aid in bringing about 
a more systematic understanding of this intensely valuable 

First of all, it must be borne in mind that the physical 
nature of the cinematograph film effectively precludes re- 
course to the still photographer’s expedient of retouching. 
None the less, recourse to some means of attaining a simi- 
lar end is often desirable, and sometimes highly necessary. 
Owing to the development of the art and technique of light- 
ing, a great deal of this pre-exposure “retouching” can often 
be done in this manner; a great deal, I repeat: but by no 
means all that should be done. Here, however, we find 
that we can usually attain the desired end through the in- 
telligent introduction of a slight degree of diffusion. 

Again, it must be remembered that dramatic cinematog- 
raphy is perpetually forced to strive for emotional as well as 
visual effects. Here, too, diffusion can play an important 
role, for when coupled with effective and suitable lighting 
and composition, proper diffusion can aid in inducing the 
desired emotional response. 

However, it must also be remembered that cinematogra- 
phy, as used in the production of photoplays, is essentially 
a dramatic, narrative Art: accordingly, it must be at once 
consistent and unobtrusive. In reading a printed story, we 
are offended when the writer falls back on the obviously 
mechanical tricks of his craft — or the printer’s — in order to 
gain emphasis. If, for instance, he employs (as was so 
often the case only a few years ago) italic type to emphasize 
a word or phrase, your train of thought is at once diverted 
from the story to the printed page which bears it. If an 
actor employs obvious mannerisms or vocal tricks for the 
same purpose, we are again irritated by his patent attempt 
to emphasize things mechanically; our attention is drawn 
from the story — from the characterization of the player — 
to the actor himself and to the mechanics of his perform- 
ance. As some great actor (I think it was George Arliss) 
once remarked, the secret of art is not being natural, but 
being unnatural — without getting caught at it. The same 
thing is doubly true of dramatic cinematography: its great- 
est secret lies in utilizing its manifold artistic and mechani- 

Above — no diffusion. Below — same subject 
and lighting, diffused; note that the diffu- 
sion renders the make-up more natural- 
appearing, and concentrates the attention 
on the face, rather than on the costume, 
hands, or background, as is the case in the 
upper picture. 

cal treks to direct the emotional response of the beholder, 
without giving the slightest suggestion of their employment. 

This must invariably be remembered when using diffu- 
sion: strictly speaking, it is not natural — even though no 
human eye has yet been found capable of seeing things with 
the remarkable definition of a modern anastigmat — and so, 
if utilized isolatedly, even the mildest diffusion becomes 
painfully obvious, even irritating, to the viewer. Yet when 
used judiciously, diffusion need not be apparent to the lay 
audience: and in such instances it can have a powerful 
psychological effect. 

(Continued on Page 193) 


American Cinematographer # September 1933 

New Method 
of Camera- 


William Stull, A.S.C. 

D ESPITE the fact that we have been making sound 
pictures for nearly five years, the majority of stu- 
dios are still using camera-silencing devices and 
methods which are admittedly makeshifts — waiting for the 
truly silent camera, which (like prosperity) always seems 
just around the corner. Accordingly, production today is 
carried on with cameras housed in large, bulky "blimps,” 
which weigh in the neighborhood of three hundred pounds 
apiece, and add mightily to the difficulty of production. In 
some instances, more or less extensive alterations have been 
made to the internal mechanisms of the cameras, with the 
purpose of reducing the actual camera-noise; in other cases, 
the cameras are merely blimped and forgotten. It is patent 
to the lay observer, however, that in most of the blimps 
used there is a great deal of surplus bulk and weight, which 
could conceivably be eliminated, making a much more prac- 
tical unit. 

At least one cinematic engineer — Mr. Armin Fried, for 
many years the head of the Engineering and Camera Main- 
tainance Service of the Fox Studios — has attempted to ac- 
complish this, with such success that he has recently com- 
pleted, and submitted to the Testing Committee of the 
American Society of Cinematographers, an excellently-de- 
signed, semi-permanent, sound-proof camera-housing which 
measures only 12x12x12 inches, and weighs 87 pounds 
with the camera and magazines fully loaded. The device 
may be used with either a Bell & Howell or a Mitchell 

While the tests of the device have not as yet been com- 
pleted, and no report, therefore, can be released, the fol- 
lowing description of the unit should prove interesting. 

Mr. Fried’s method of "Reconstruction-Silencing,” as he 
terms it, consists of the following, according to a recent 
statement from Mr. Fried: "First, the camera itself is thor- 
oughly silenced, in so far as is possible without removing or 
altering any of the salient features of the original design. 
While, I realize, certain firms have essayed to silence Bell 
& Howell and Mitchell cameras by replacing their regular 
movements, etc., with ‘re-designed’ or ‘silenced’ movements 
of other design and manufacture, such a step has not been 
found necessary in my method. In fact, I have taken great 
pains to avoid doing anything of the kind, for both the Bell 
& Howell pilot-pin intermittent and the Mitchell speed 
movement are vital parts of these scientifically designed 
instruments: and the qualities of these movements were 
undoubtedly vital factors in the original purchase of the 
equipment. Therefore, rather than remove, alter, or re- 
place these vital parts with some miscegenate — and possibly 

faulty — makeshift, I have striven to silence the other noise- 
making parts (such as bearings, gears, etc.) which can be 
silenced legitimately, and to complete the job by applying 
a really sound-proof outer casing. 

"After this internal silencing, a new optical system is 
added to the camera: a focusing system which makes it 
possible to focus the camera from the rear without either 
shifting the camera or revolving a lens-turret. Doing away 
with the lateral shifting otherwise employed permits me to 
apply a snug, form-fitting outer case, only slightly larger 
than the camera itself. 

"This outer case contains the regular sound absorbing 
materials, air-spaces, etc., resulting in a small, compact 
camera case, in which the camera is a semi-permanent unit, 
removed only when in need of repairs. We have found it 
unnecessary to blimp the magazines, so they are attached 
directly to the case, which insulates them completely from 
metallic contact with the camera itself. Standard maga- 
zines are used, with a small metal cover over the take-up 
belting, and beaded moulding applied to both sides of the 
magazines, to break up any diaphragm or drumming effect. 
It has proven entirely successful. 

"All of the camera-controls are on the outside of the 
outer case; the only time a door is opened is when the 
camera is loaded, which operation, of course, is done in the 
conventional manner. The focusing dials and controls for 
focusing and follow-focusing, are placed at the rear of the 
camera, while the shutter and counter dials and controls 
are at the right side. Lenses may be changed in less than 
a minute, by means of an automatic locking device: the 
lens-mounts standard to the camera being reconstruction- 
silenced are used. A special sunshade is fitted to the case, 
and normally equipped with a 3-inch square optical glass 
flat, which can be replaced with any standard 3-inch glass 
filter if desired. Any desired features may be built into 
the sunshade, allowing for the use of gauze or hard mattes, 
glass mattes, etc.; or the regular matte-box can be incor- 
porated into the design. 

"The optical system, which makes the small outer-case 
possible, is simple and effective. A turn of the focus-lever 
at the rear of the camera shifts the lens forward along its 
optical axis, and at the same time places a prism behind 
the lens, in proper focal alignment. The prism in turn 
reflects the image through the magnifying focusing system 
of the camera, which in itself is essentially unchanged: if 
a Mitchell camera is used, the regular Mitchell focusing 

(Continued on Page 197) 

A Bell & Howell Camera “Reconstruction-Silenced” 
by the Fried Camera Company method. 

September 1933 9 American Cinematographer 




F ROM the general standpoint of 
fineness of grain, speed, and 
processing characteristics, 
Eastman Background Negative is 
definitely superior to every film 
hitherto available for composite 
shots. Tests in the laboratory and 
on the lot prove this. They indicate 
that this new Eastman film will go 
far to enhance the beauty and effec- 
tiveness of today’s motion pictures. 
Eastman Kodak Company. (J. E. 
Brulatour, Inc., Distributors, New 
York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 




American Cinematographer 9 September 1933 




Dunning 16 mm. Color 

• This month the Dunning Process Com- 
pany of Hollywood announces pictures 

in natural color on 16 mm. film that can 
be run on any 16 mm. projector without 
any extra attachments as the pictures 
themselves are in color. 

The first subjects to be announced by 
Dunning are “Hawaii’s Lake of Fire,” 
which is described as carrying you down 
into the crater of Kilauea’s volcano dur- 
ing a most active period. Also the “River 
of Lost Souls,” photographed in color 
by its own fiery illumination. This sub- 
ject is approximately 100 feet in length 
and is being marketed by leading deal- 
ers throughout the country. 

It is also understood that subjects of 
greater length will soon be marketed 
through the Kodascope library. 

The second of the Dunning series for 
direct sale by Dunning will be “In the 
Blackfoot Country,” picturing the Black- 
feet Indians in colorful costumes and 
tribal dances. 

A regular schedule of releases will 
be instituted soon by the Dunning Proc- 
ess Company of these 16 mm. Natural 
Color subjects. 

Victor Sound on Film 

• According to announcements from the 
Victor Animatograph Corp., their sound 

on film 16 mm. projector is ready for 
the market. This model will acommo- 
date either 400-ft. or 1600-ft. maga- 
zines. It has tone and volume controls, 
super-Hi-Power illumination and con- 
tains the Victor feature of automatic pro- 
tection against film breakage. 

A New Camera Sunshade 

• The Bell £r Howell Company announces 
an accessory which will undoubtedly 

be welcome by cinematographers. 

Lenses of short focal length are very 
extensively used and the sunshades and 
vignetting devices in general use inter- 
fere with the extreme angle of view of 
these lenses. 

The Sunshade announced by the Bell 
Cr Howell Company is so designed to 
permit its efficient use with lenses of as 
short focal length as 24 mm. 

To affix it to the camera the regular 
sunshade is removed and the new one 
put in its place. 

Provisions are made to make possible 
the use of a 2-inch and a 3-inch filter 
and diffusing gauzes in addition to a 
2-inch round diffusion disc which is 
placed nearest to the lens. 

The new sunshade assures protection 
to the lens against stray light, with a 
minimum of inconvenience and ioss of 

Trix Exposure Meter 

• The C. P. Coerz American Optical 
Company announce a new exposure 

meter under the trade name of Trix Ex- 
posure Meter. This meter is described 
as having a self-contained light source. 
This source is luminous, according to 
the announcement, and is on a disc 
coated with a fluorescent substance that 
makes it highly automatic in its action. 

Willoughby Catalog 

• Willoughby has issued a very compact 
27-page catalog on 16 mm. equipment 

which is being sent free to those who 
request it. It lists many projectors and 
cameras as well as such accessories as 
filters, editors, title-makers, rewinds, 

Filmo Sound 

• For owners of FILMO 70 type cameras 
who wish to experiment with their 

own 1 6 mm. sound recording equipment, 
Bell & Howell Company will install syn- 
chronous motors on such cameras. If 
the camera is not already equipped with 
a hand crank, that must be installed. A 
flexible cable to connect the hand crank 
shaft to the motor to eliminate vibration 
is also available. 

New Craig Rewind 

• The Craig Movie Supply Company has 
announced a new rewind designed by 

Mr. Craig. This 16 mm. rewind is pat- 
terned much after the professional re- 
wind. It is gear-driven throughout, 
which prevents slippage under load. Also 
the handles are so built in that a slight 
pull on them pulls them out of gear so 

that the handle which is now being used 
does not twirl around during the re- 
winding of a reel. Craig is making these 
new rewinds a part of his combination 
which includes his well-known splicer. 

Eastman View Camera 

• The “Eastman View Camera 33,” for 

5x7 pictures, has been announced by 
the Eastman Kodak Company. 

The new camera, rigidly constructed 
and easily manipulated but inexpensive, 
is expected to find its principal use in 
the hands of commercial and portrait 
photographers who have need for a sec- 
ond camera. 

This camera, currently going on the 
market, has a simple rising and falling 
front, and horizontal and vertical swing 
back; a single extension bed; back fo- 
cusing operated by rack and pinion; and 
sufficient compactness to allow the use 
of wide-angle lenses. It has a reversible 
ground-glass back fitted with a cut-off 
board that permits making two exposures 
on a 5x7 film or plate. The bellows has 
an extension of 1 3 inches. The lens 
board measures 4 inches by 4. 

The Eastman View Camera 33 will be 
sold equipped with either a film holder 
or a plate holder. The weight of the 
camera is 4% pounds. The finish is 
flat walnut and nickel. 

Filmo Topics 

® The summer edition of Filmo Topics, 

published by Bell & Howell in the 
interest of 16 mm. users, is off the press 
and is being distributed by dealers 
throughout the country. 

Editor Edwin A. Reeve has compiled a 
specially interesting issue that takes in 
such timely topics as the “Movies Ex- 
hibited at the World’s Fair.” A picto- 
rial page showing Clark Cable training 
his Filmo on Helen Hayes during the 
making of “White Sister.” Movie Cam- 
era Lenses are explained in a simple Way. 
Hints on Vacation Filming, by Ralph 
Newcomb, is given a great deal of space. 
Recording a Photoplay is authored by 
Harvey F. Morris, and of course, the ever 
interesting Question and Answers col- 
umn conducted by R. Fawn Mitchell. 

September 193S • American Cinematographer 


Photograph by H.W. Voss 

• PROFESSIONAL Criticism of the Amateur 
picture is a part of the service offered by the 
are not aware of this. Hundreds of pictures 
have been reviewed this past year by mem- 
bers of the American Society of Cinematog- 
raphers for the Amateur. 


Contents . . . 

EQUIPPING the Home 16 mm. Laboratory 
by William Stull, A.S.C 176 

A PROFESSIONAL Discusses Continuity 

by William J. MacCrath 177 

MINIATURE Negative and Grain 

by George W. Hesse 1 78 

SLOW Motion in Athletics 

by C. E. Brackett 180 

MY “Sierra Special 16” 

by R. C. Denny 181 

C I NEM ICROSCOPY with 16 mm. 

by William F. Kruse 182 


by A.S.C. Members. .. ...184 

Next Month . . . 

• DUE TO the unusually heavy schedule of productions that are now 
going on in all of Hollywood’s studios we were not able to give you 
the article this month promised by one of the A.S.C. members on the 
use of the Exposure Meter . . . everything indicates it will be a part 
of our October issue. 

WE WILL have an interesting analysis of the Amateur in Europe by 
D. Knegt of Holland. This will be the first of a series of articles by 
Knegt, who is the honorable secretary of the Nederlandsche Smalfilm- 
liga of Amsterdam. 

THERE WILL be an article on Interior Lighting by a member of the 
American Society of Cinematographers. 

. . . and other articles of unusual and timely interest. 


American Cinematographer © September 1933 

At top is illustrated the Correx Developing Kit, 
which is more fully described in this article. At 
bottom is the spiral reel type of developing-rack. 

Equipping the 
Home 16mm. 


WiSliam Stu El, A.S.C. 

E QUIPMENT needed for the home laboratory for the 
development and printing of 16 mm. film is not elab- 
orate. All of it can be purchased and some of it 
made if the experimenter desires. 

You’ll need something to hold the film, which can be 
either rack, drum or reel. You’ll need a tank to develop, 
a drum to dry the film and a printer to print it- — -and there 
you are. 

Pin-racks are probably the oldest type of developing- 
rack; they consist simply of a cross-shaped or X-shaped 
frame, with uniformly-spaced vertical pins extending up 
from the arms of the cross so that the film is held with 
its edge at right angles to the surface of the solution, and 
completely immersed. Such racks can, of course, be made 
and in any size needed. A rack twenty inches square, made 
of two strips of wood or brass, 20 inches long by '/ 2 -inch 
wide by '/ 4 -inch thick, joined together in cross-shape, 
with 34 rows of pins made of one-inch lengths of '/s-inch 
dowel-stock, spaced '/s-inch apart ,and with a clear space 
3 inches in diameter in the center (to allow for a handle), 
will hold slightly over 100 feet of film. By making the 
rack X-shaped rather than cross-shaped, you can easily de- 
velop a 100-foot roll of film in any ordinary 1 8x24-inch 
tray. Such a rack is probably the cheapest equipment one 

can get; but like many other cheap articles, it suffers from 
serious disadvantages. In the first place, the action of the 
developer will not be even; you will get uneven streaks 
across the film wherever it is in contact with one of the 
pins, producing a light flash at regular intervals in the 
finished print, known as “rack flashes’’ to the professional. 
Also, you will find that the fairly abrupt bends at these 
same places give the negative a semi-permanent wrinkle or 
irregularity, which usually impairs the print. 

Frame racks are, as the name implies, simply rectangular 
frames — sometimes fitted with guiding pegs — about which 
the film is wrapped, and which are, in turn, placed in deep, 
narrow tanks, for development. Up to a few years ago, 
such racks were used very extensively in developing pro- 
fessional film, but they have been almost universally dis- 
placed by machine development now. 

At least one professional laboratory uses the drum sys- 
tem, and a smaller type of drum is commercially available, 

I believe, for amateur use: this method certainly is the 
most economical in the small amount of solution needed 
(all that is necessary is enough to wet the lower face of 
the revolving drum) — but the equipment needed is com- 
paratively bulky, and extremely difficult to operate safely 
in total darkness, as must be done when using Panchro- 
matic or SuperSensitive films. 

The principle of the Stinemann rack is simple: merely a 
metal spiral into which the film is threaded (emulsion-side 
out, of course), and the ends of the film clipped in place 
with ordinary paper-clips. The film is kept on the rack 
through the developing, fixing and washing operations, and 
then removed to a drying-drum. 

The Correx System is essentially similar, except that the 
spiral guide is flexible, and is wound on the reel together 
with the film. If you have used the Correx equipment for 
developing “Leica” film — or even the old “Kodak roll-film 
developing tank,” you will be able to visualize the working 
of this reel-and-apron system. The Correx equipment con- 
sists of a pair of wire reels, a corrugated-celluloid apron of 
the proper length, a wire flange, and a loading-frame. In 
use, the apron is wound around one reel, and placed on one 
spindle of the loading-frame, while an empty reel is placed 
on the other. The apron (which has about a yard at each 
end which is not corrugated) is started onto the empty 
reel; then the film, which has been placed on a third spin- 
dle, is fed in with the apron before the corrugated portion 
starts to unwind, thereby holding the film securely in place. 
At this point, or before, the wire flange is placed on top 
of the reel being filled, so that the film and apron will wind 
straight and evenly, and the two are wound together onto 
the reel. When this is finished, the outer end of the apron 
is clipped, the upper flange is removed, and the reel, with 
the apron and film wound upon it, is transferred to the 
developer, which is in one of the round tanks supplied with 
the outfit. 

It is not wise to attempt to dry the film on the develop- 
ing-rack (and, of course, impossible when using the Correx 
system). Therefore, a drying-drum should be built. This 
is simply a wooden drum of appropriate size, with open, 
ribbed faces rather than a solid circumference, and mounted 
horizontally so that it can revolve freely. The film is 
wound around this drum (emulsion side out), and held in 
place at each end by rubber bands wrapped around one of 
the ribs and clipped onto the film: this allows for the con- 
siderable contraction which the film undergoes in drying, 
which would otherwise either break the film or unfasten 

(Continued on Page 190) 

September 1933 9 American Cinematographer 


A Professions 




Wm. ]. McGrath 

Author of “Ladies They Tak About,” 
“Sob Sister,” “Prison Doctor” and 
other professional productions 


OME people think of continuity as something you put 
| into a picture at the splicing board. It must exist 
before you reach that stage or you can not put it into 
the picture. 

Continuity is a simple thing. Sometimes it’s just repeti- 
tion from different angles or distances. The simplest illus- 
traton I can give you is the depiction of an emotion. Let’s 
say a girl is showing fright. You get a long shot of the 
girl seeing something, let’s say back of a bush or tree. You 
can intensify this fright by stepping up for a quarter shot, 
and then in for a closeup of the girl’s face, then back again 
to the quarter shot and then to the continued action of 
the long shots, or possibly cutting in what she saw before 
you come into the long shot again. 

The same sort of continuity is true where you have no 
drama. You want to show a car speeding down the road. 
You register the long shot, then the quarter shot and then 
for the closeup to the wheels or some other part of the 
car. If it is speeding you can cut this wheel action in fre- 
quently; or the tappetts of the car; the man’s foot pressing 
down on the gas, or a shot at the speedometer. Those are 
the things that make the simplest continuity. It isn’t neces- 
sary to have a story continuity for many of the things you 
are going to do. 

Possibly the greatest trouble among amateur Cinefilmers 
is shooting such things as birthday parties. Children gen- 
erally furnish their own continuity if you will just watch 
their play a bit. Take the thing in which they are inter- 
ested and work up to it with quarter and closeup shots 
and then back again to the long shots showing them at play 
or using some toy. Possibly a real closeup of their faces 
to cut in at some action of the play or toy. 

Look at it this way. You are going to show them playing 
a game; let’s say it’s the simple game of dropping the hand- 
kerchief. The children are in a circle; one child is running 
around the outside of this circle with a handkerchief. You 
show the action . . . definitely establish what the game is. 
You get a closeup of the child running around. You get a 
more intimate closeup of the handkerchief in the child’s 
hand. You flash back again to the child running around. 
Then you go into the closeup of the hand releasing the 
handkerchief and you see it falling to the ground back of 
a chi'd. Possibly from there on you show a hand picking 
up the handkerchief. You see the little feet start out on 

Wm. J. McCrath, author of 
many professional pictures 

the chase and you keep the camera at the empty spot in 
the line and you see the other pair of feet come into the 
vacant spot. You can elaborate on this by shooting sev- 
eral pair of the other feet twisting around showing excite- 
ment. You can get in the center of the ring, put the camera 
close to the ground and pan through the circle of feet on the 
feet that are chasing each other. Then back to the smil- 
ing and laughing faces of the children, taking each head as 
it turns and follows the runners. 

It’s just simple things like this that make continuity, but 
getting them down on the film in their intimate details 
does take a little thinking. 

If you will look at the things you are going to picture 
from that standpoint you will find you can get a mightv 
interesting picture cut of an old junk yard ... a second- 
hand car lot . . . even out of a chicken roost. 

When you cut into a closeup do not make that closeup 
too iong; sometimes a foot is sufficient, depending upon 
the action. My experience with amateurs in acting is that 
they become extremely self-conscious of closeups and fre- 
quently just a flash registers what you want sufficiently to 
make the scene more interesting. However, if the c'oseup 
must tell something of the action, then it is permissible to 
make it as lengthy as the action dictates. 

When we write professionally we always inject a certain 
spirit into the story; in fact, every story mirrors a certain 
mood . . . and you’ll find every incident has its mood 
whether it is travel, play or documentary. 

The amateur who travels into foreign fields has a won- 
derful opportunity for bringing back intensely interesting 
material. If, instead of shooting street scene after street 
scene, he would concentrate on one street in that city and 
secure the atmosphere of that street, of its people, of its 
buildings, he would have an interpretation of that whole 
city — an interpretation that would be interesting to every- 
one who saw it. A picture that would not require a great 
deal of explanation. 

(Continued on Page 188) 


American Cinematographer 9 September 1933 

Portion of a 9x1 3-inch Leica enlargement. Made 
at normal exposure on DuPont Super-sensitive 
Panchromatic Film. Developed in Paraphenylene- 
Diamine Formula No. 1. 

N RECENT months more and more emphasis has been 
placed on the use of the miniature camera in photo- 
graphing production and publicity stills. It has been 
rightly pointed cut that a camera such as the Leica, using 
precisely the same film as is used in the motion picture 
cameras, and with its battery of lenses of varying focal 
lengths and speeds (enabling a lense to be selected which 
will be relatively the same as the one on the movie camera) 
is an unrivalled instrument for securing stills which will 
match in every particular the scene as photographed by the 
motion picture camera. Since the emulsion in the two 
cameras is the same, details of make-up, set construction, 
scene painting, costume design and color correction can be 
recorded with every assurance that the still produced by the 
Leica will match precisely the photography of the produc- 
tion cameras. 

The use of the Leica in making test shots under doubt- 
ful lighting conditions and with various filtering effects is 
so well known that any mention here of the technique of 
making these tests would be superfluous. To the industrial 
and free-lance cameramen outside of Hollywood, perhaps the 
greatest use of the Leica will be in making tests under un- 
familiar conditions and in testing new filters and new emul- 
sions as they appear. The tiny instrument forms an eco- 
nomical means of familiarizing oneself with new develop- 
ments and of improving one’s technique at a time when 
emulsions and filters and the use of the two are under- 
going constant mutations. The amateur, too, will find this 
camera an invaluable aid and a decided shortcut in improv- 
ing his photographic technique. 

To the person first embracing the Leica, either for his 
own pleasure or in connection with his professional work, 
the claims advanced for it will seem extravagant. It will 


seem incredible that a photographic instrument can pack so 
much precision into such a small space. The relatively 
huge 16 by 20-inch enlargements made from 24 by 36 mm. 
negatives will be put down as being exceptional. But, time 
after time, so many disinterested parties have produced the 
results set forth by the manufacturers that the advertising 
claims can safely be relegated to the category of proven 

For most purposes, in and out of the studio, for record and 
publicity uses, it will be found necessary to produce sharp, 
8 by 10-inch glossy prints which will reproduce with a 
complete fidelity to the original delineation. To consistently 
produce Leica negatives which will enable the making of 
this size print on glossy paper to become a matter of rou- 
tine, it is only necessary, as in all fields of photographic en- 
deavor, to exercise care. Every process, from the moment of 
making the exposure to developing and enlarging the nega- 
tive must be carried out with the dea of producng as sharply 
defined a negative with as fine a grain as possible. Defini- 
tion is dependent upon perfect focus, and perfect focus is 
taken care of by the automatic coupling between the lens 
and the built-in range finder. 

When considering the matter of grain in a negative, three 
major factors must be taken into consideration; first, the 
inherent grain in the sensitive emulsion; second, the de- 
velopment of the negative; and third, the exposure. There 
are, of course, other minor factors concerning grain, which, 
while important to the technical worker, do not affect the 
grain of a negative to such an extent as the aforementioned 
three factors and thus need not be given the same serious 

When setting out with the intention of making huge 
enlargements, a fine grain film should be selected. The 
Perutz Persenso Film is one of the finest grain films avail- 
able and should be used in cases like this. It is, of course, 
orthochromatic and since the latitude of the emulsion 
is not so great as the Super-sensitive panchromatic films 
it is important to have fully exposed negatives. Other fine 
grain orthochromatic films are the Cevaert, Agfa Fine- 
Grain Plenachrome and Mimosa Leica film. Personal pre- 
ference will determine which films to use, some workers 
preferring the highly Orthochromatic properties of the Perutz 
film while others prefer the properties inherent in a film 
of the Plenachrome tpe. 

Ordinarily panchromatic or super-sensitive panchromatic 
films are not recommended for fine grain results. However, 
the DuPont Quarter-Speed Panchromatic film is extremely 
fine grained, having approximately one-quarter the speed 
of DuPont regular panchromatic film. It is rated at ap- 
proximately 16 degrees Scheiner to daylight and 17 degrees 
Scheiner to incandescent light. It has considerable contrast 
and should be developed in a soft working developer unless 
the contrast is desired as in special work such as aerial pho- 
tography, copying and the like. 

Regardless of the type of film used, the exposure should, 
in all cases, be as nearly correct as possible and the latitude 
of the emulsions should not be depended upon to take care 
of over or under-exposure. Over-exposure causes the grain 

September 1933 • American Cinematographer 






George W. Hesse 


to clump together and produces negatives which won’t stand 
very great enlargement. Many workers run up against this 
condition when using filters as they incorrectly interpret 
the filter factor with a consequence that they over-expose, 
cause grain and are either at a loss to account for the 
grain or they blame it on the use of the filter. 

The development of the tiny negatives is perhaps the 
most important step in the production of superior results. 
A fine grain developer is essential if the enlargements are 
to be the best that the negatives can possibly produce. 
Further, the film should be developed in either a Correx or a 
Reelo tank, as with this equipment the film is protected 
from all harm and, since the tank is light-proof, developing 
can actually take place in the comfort of ordinary light. 

The developer to be used is again a matter of personal 
preference. Some prefer to use the prepared developers 
which need merely to be dissolved in water, while others 
prefer to mix their own and vary the standard developers 
as they see fit. Either way the results will be satisfactory, 
as there are prepared developers on the market which will 
give a very fine grain result. Perhaps the best known of 
the prepared developers is the Perutz fine grain and compen- 
sating developer. This is an excellent developer to use for 
routine work as it gives a well developed image in about 8 
to 10 minutes at 65° F., while most of the prepared de- 
velopers of the fine grain variety require from 20 to 30 
minutes developing time. A peculiarity about this developer, 
which many workers have observed, is that as it becomes 
aged from use it seems to give an increasingly finer grain 

The other prepared developers are of varied kinds, some 
in powder form as is the Perutz developer, while the others 
are in liquid form and act as stock solutions. Hauff’s Mi- 
krol will be found to give a result, so far as grain is con- 
cerned, comparable to that produced by the Perutz fine-grain 
and compensating developer. Other good developers are 
Rytol, Rodinal, Glycinol and Hauff’s prepared Clycin. In 
this group of six prepared developers one can find one 
which will suit his own individual requirements regarding the 
amount of contrast or softness desired in the negative. 

Perhaps the best known fine grain formula, and one 
which has long been used for developing motion picture 
negatives, is the 

Fine Crain Borax Developer (Eastman D-76) 

A B 

Elon 30 grains 40 grains 

Sodium Sulphite 3 Vz ounces 3 Vi ounces 

Hydroquinone 75 grains 40 grains 

Borax 30 grains 30 grains 

Water 32 ounces 32 ounces 

Developing time, 9 to 1 2 minutes at 65° F. 

“A” will give more snap or contrast, while “B” will give 
a softer negative. 

While it has been stated that the super-sensitive pan- 
chromatic emulsions are not recommended for extreme fine 
grain results, still, since this is the film mostly used by 
cameramen, it is necessary to run tests and experiments on 
it, and at the same time produce as large and detailful a 
series of prints as possible. 

The recently introduced developing agent, Paraphenylene- 
diamine, when properly used will produce so fine a grain on 
the super-sensitive pan films that glossy enlargements in 
excess of 8 by 1 0 can regularly be produced with so slight 
a grain that it will be negligible so far as reproduction pur- 
poses go. 

Formula No. 1 

Paraphenylene-diamine 90 grains 

Sodium Sulphite E.K 450 grains 

Borax 255 grains 

Tri-Basic Sodium Phosphate 210 grains 

Water 1 6 ounces 

Developing time, 35 minutes at 68° F. 

An even finer grain may be secured by deliberately giv- 
ing the negative double the normal exposure and developing 
it in 

Formula No. 2 

Paraphenylene-diamine 72 grains 

Sodium Sulphite E.K 420 grains 

Water 1 6 ounces 

Developing time, 30 minutes at 68° F. 
Paraphenylene-diamine is readily dissolved in hot water 
about 180° F. and after it is in solution the Sodium Sulphite 

(Continued on Page 190) 

Portion of a 9x1 3-inch Leica enlargement. Nega- 
tive used: DuPont Super-sensitive Panchromatic, 
but this was given double the normal exposure 
and developed in Paraphenylene-Diamine Formula 
No. 2. The grain is even finer than obtained with 
Formula No. 1. 


American Cinematographer • September 1933 

Photo by C. O. Russell 

Slow Motion 
in Athletics 


C. E. Brackett 

Editor’s Note: Mr. Brackett, who is with the Hollywood 

branch of the Bell & Howell Co., has made a fine reputa- 
tion for himself in the making of slow motion 16 mm. pic- 
tures of athletic events on the Pacific Coasf. He was 
selected by Coach Howard Jones of fhe University of 
Southern California to make a 16 mm. record in slow mo- 
tion of all of the 1932 U.S.C. football games. 

HAVE taken many slow motion pictures of track, field 
events, swimming, diving, tennis and football and have 
shown these pictures to the athletes who took part. In 
every instance, those who viewed themselves on the slow 
motion screen have detected some fault or could see one 
or more things they may do to improve themselves. It has 
been a great pleasure to assist them and note their progress. 

There is no sport that can profit more from slow motion 
pictures than football. The greatest value is that the play- 
ers may see themselves through the eyes of the coach and 
have sufficient time to study each play as it actually hap- 
pens. A coach, in order to be perfect, should have twenty- 
two sets of eyes seeing each play, but his attention can be 
placed on only one thing at a time. Slow motion pictures 
may be run over and over again until the coach has 
watched each individual player on the team execute his 
part in the play. The picture of the game shown to the team 
after the game, augmented by remarks from the coach, illus- 
trate his analysis in absolute truth. Can you imagine the 
value of slow movies of last year’s game with the same 
school, viewed prior to this year’s game? Verbal warnings 

are seven times less apprehensive than visual warnings. As 
a matter of fact, the greatest football coaches use slow 
motion pictures to add that nth degree. 

Should you photograph any football games this fall, there 
are only a few important things to remember. Never take 
a scene slower than 32 frames per second. Start the cam- 
era at the end of the huddle and continue until just after 
the whistle blows. Get as high and as far away from the 
play as possible and use a four or six-inch lens on a tripod. 
If there is any error in exposure, have it lean to under- 

It might be well to explain the reason for thirty-two 
speed in connection with football. This speed places the 
desired results within the scope of the projector. On ac- 
count of the lesser displacement at thirty-two speed, the 
projector run at eight speed will produce ultra slow motion 
(one-fourth the normal action) without a great deal of 
jumping. If the projector is increased to maximum speed, 
normal action will be seen; then, too, the action will be 
cut in half with the projector running at normal speed. 
This is very important as consumption of film has to be 
taken into consideration. It might interest you to know 
that it takes an average of 2,000 feet of film to photograph 
every play of an entire game at thirty-two speed, and also 
that two or three cameras are needed with an extra person 
doing nothing but changing rolls of film. The value in 
shooting at a distance, and from a high place, using a four 
or six-inch telephoto lens, lies in the fact that you can 
look down on the players and see the “holes” opened by 
the offensive team in their opponents’ line, thus enabling 
you to “follow the ball.” The four-inch lens, shooting 
from the fifty-yard line on top of the press box at the Los 
Angeles Coliseum, includes an area of about 12'/2 yards in 
the center and on the close side of the field, fifteen yards 
in the far center and the close ends of the field. A six-inch 
lens from the same spot takes in an area of about 1 2 V 2 
yards in the far corners. Your camera should be so arranged 
that you can make a rapid change from one lens to another. 
Football pictures even slightly over-exposed are not very 
satisfactory as the uniforms of most teams are such that 
they wash into the green or dry grass. The exposure should 
naturally be correct, but if any question arises between two 
openings, use the smaller opening of the two. An under- 
exposed picture is preferable to one proportionately over- 
exposed. And last, but certainly not least, keep the center 
of action on the left side of the viewfinder if the motion 
is directed towards the right, and the reverse if the action 
is progressing towards the left. The reason for this is that 
it is more interesting to see what might happen than to 
see the results of what did happen. Don’t forget to photo- 
graph the score board no matter which team is winning! 

Slow motion pictures make it possible to study the ath- 
lete’s form as no other method can provide. When seeing the 
actual event taking place, motions occur so rapidly that many 
details are missed even to the trained eye. Seeing the same 
action on the screen two, four or eight times slower than 
normal, gives one facts not otherwise seen, especially so 
when the film may be stopped and a “still” projected at any 
point. There is also the great advantage in repeating the 
same action several times. 

In ultra slow motion pictures (128 speed) taken of 
Johnny Riley, reputed to be the world’s best diver, many 
details are shown that are nothing short of amazing. For 
example, when Johnny executes a forward two-and-one-half 
dive from the ten-foot board, slow motion pictures make it 
very evident that two complete turns are made before he 

(Continued on Page 188) 

September 1933 # American Cinematographer 


My "Sierra 
Special Sixteen” 


R. C. Denny 


SUPPOSE many people may wonder “why under the sun” 
with so many 16 mm. cameras on the market, should 
an amateur undertake to build one for himself. I am 
sure that it was not any vain desire on my part to outdo 
the manufacturer or to go my friends one better in owning 
the unusual. I simply felt that for all round amateur movie 
making, I needed a camera capable of the effects most 
often seen in present day pictures. At the time I started 
work on my camera, and in fact not until quite recently, 
was there a 1 6 mm. camera on the market that would do 
these things; not at any price. 

The year and a half spent on my camera project might 
be divided about half and half between pattern making and 
machining. Built in spare time, and during a depression, 
the job naturally lagged at times. As I look back over it, 
I wonder how I had the patience to stick to such a task, 
although having all the facilities for doing the work. I 
certainly would not advise any amateur to build any equip- 
ment of this sort, unless he does have all the facilities, and 
gives the design ample study before starting on it. 

As I was not building a noiseless camera for sound work, 

I was not particularly concerned in those features tending 
to reduce noises. This simplified the design, as I could 
use ordinary spur gears, projector parts and things I could 
get already made. I not only wanted to be able to run the 
film backwards in order to make lap dissolves, etc., but I 
wanted to take reverse action pictures with it in that man- 
ner. Consequently the entire mechanism is subject to re- 
verse operation through the manipulation of a gear shift 
lever in the rear of the camera. This lever meshes either 
of two bevel gears on the main shaft with a bevel gear on 
the vertical shaft of a phonograph motor in the base of the 

This phonograph motor, a double spring affair, is largely 
responsible for the extra weight of the camera, and the 
height as well. Some of the gears in the motor were re- 
moved and others rearranged to get a greater torque. The 
governor flyballs were lightened to obtain a maximum speed 
equivalent to something over 24 frames per second. Adjust- 
ments of the governor regulator will give lower speeds as 
they may be required. An automobile speedometer was re- 
modeled and geared to the motor shaft to indicate frames 
per second. Two revolution counters are geared to the 
camera shaft, the footage meter permanently and the frame 
counter for disengagement when not required. The camera 
will run 50 feet of film per winding, although seldom re- 
quired to. 

The change gears may be left in neutral, and the camera 
cranked by hand or other external means, such as a syn- 
chronous motor. There is also a one frame per turn crank 

In the rear view there are two other cranks than 
the winding crank at the bottom. The larger is 
for ordinary two turn per second; the smaller for 
frame per turn. They are removable. The trigger 
release button is below the frame per turn crank 
and locks by a slight downward pressure. The 
upper button operates the exposure meter. Just 
beneath to the left is the frame counter, and to 
the right of that the focus on film eyepiece, 
which pulls out flush with the back of the cam- 
era. Beneath this is the gear shift lever, hardly 
discernible. Below that to the left is the footage 
meter, and just below that the push rod which 
operates the fader out. To the right of this but- 
ton is the tachometer and in front of it the gov- 
ernor speed regulator. The upper button of the 
two on the left wall shifts the frame counter in 
and out of gear and locks it. The lower one is the 
brake release on the motor which locks by a 
downward prcs;uro. 

provided for antimations, etc. The focus on film device, 
instead of being on the side as in most 16 mm. cameras, 
reflects through the center partition into a tube and thence 
back through the magnifying lenses to the eyepiece in the 
rear of the camera. An electric exposure meter is built 
into the camera so that it will always be at hand when 

The camera proper accommodates 100-foot rolls inside 
it, while a 400-foot magazine may be fastened on the back 
of the camera when needed. Reverse takeup is automati- 
cally in effect when the camera is run backward, and vice 
versa. This is accomplished by the use of ratchet devices 

(Continued on Page 191) 


American Cinematographer # September 1933 

Photo No. 1, upper left — Reflex Focuser plus lens 
adapted sleeves give low-power magnification 
without use of microscope. Photo No. 2, lower 
left, and Photo No. 3, upper right, show a Spencer 
adaptation of Bell & Howell camera complete. 

Photo No. 4, lower right, is set-up used to get 
Brownian movement in blood serum. 


With 16 mm. 



Wm. F. Kruse 

Educational Director, Bell & Howell Co. 


f HE miscroscope unlocks a vast and often magic world 
' to the cinematographer. Essential equipment require- 
* ments are only three — a camera, microscope, and a 
source of illumination. All workers in the field of cine- 
microscopy must have these three elements in common, but 
here the identity ends. In no field is there more room and 
more necessity for personal adaptations, special methods, 
and controlled experimentation. 

The attention of the writer was first called to some of 
the possibilities of this challenging movie world by an au- 
thoritative article in the S.M.P.E. journal. The equipment 
used filled a fair sized room and must have cost a good 
many Rockefeller dollars — well spent dollars, moreover, for 
they made real contribution to scientific research and pho- 
tography. ( * ) 

The other end of the scale is contributed by a physician 
friend who added to the three essential equipment elements 
only a 90° angle made of two shelf boards, and a black paper 
light-trap tubf. (**) Here is a cinemicroscopic outfit ready 
to hand in the average man’s movie outfit. The projector is 
used as a light source. The camera is a regular Filmo 70-DA 
mounted on a focusing alignment gauge fastened at the 
proper height on the vertical support. Focus is obtained 
through the critical focuser built into the camera. 

Desirable Refinements 

The next addition to such an ultra-simple ourfit is a 
refiex focuser that enables the photographer to slide in a 
reflecting prism whenever he wants to check focus, and 
thus minimizes the danger of disturbing the set-up as a 
result of shifting the entire camera. We should not over- 
look the advantages of this combination for macroscopy, 
giving low-power magnification by lengthening the bellows 
extension between lens and film plane, rather than through 
a microscope. The application of this device is shown in 
pictures 1 and 4. 

Following this comes the refinement of the home-made 
camera support into an adjustable stand, or else one co- 
ordinated exactly to the tube extension of the microscope 

A major shortcoming in this simplest of set-ups is that 
no provision is made to watch the subject while the picture 
is being shot. This is exceedngly important because some 
of the most interesting work involves fast moving micro- 
organisms — and these are just the ones that persist in mov- 
ing rapidly in and out of the picture, as well as in and out 
of focus. The remedy is found in a split-beam prism de- 
vice that passes perhaps 10% of the available illumination 
for direct viewing purposes, and diverts the rest at right 
angles into the camera. Two such devices, illustrated here 
(pictures 2, 3 and 4), the Spencer and the Zeiss, shoot 
the bulk of the light into a horizontal tube, and divert into 
the regular vertical viewing tube just sufficient light for 
ordinary examination. The Bausch & Lomb outfit operates 

Some Typical Set-ups 

The Spencer cine-micro-photo attachment for the Bell & 
Howell 16 mm. camera has been found exceedingly easy to 
use in graduate research work at Northwestern University 
Dental School and, of course, elsewhere. After the attach- 
ment has been fitted (the work of only a moment), the 
microscope is focused in the usual way. The field of the 
camera is clearly delimited by a green eyepiece mask hav- 
ing a clear rectangular center, the camera is brought to 
proper height by means of a finely adjustable heavy iron 
stand, and we are ready to shoot. The 1 -inch F 3.5 Cooke 
lens, set at infinity, is calculated as part of the optical sys- 
tem of this set-up. 

The Zeiss-Goerz-Bell & Howell set-up pictured here 
(picture 4) was applied successfully in getting ultra-micro- 
scopy of Brownian movement in the blood serum which, 
counting projection magnification, gave an estimated en- 
largement of 250,000x. f***) It consists of a Filmo camera 
(a) on an adjustable stand, a reflex focuser (b), split- 
beam device (c), microscope (d), cooling cell (e), arc 
lamp (f), resistance and switch (g). 

A study of these various photographs will tell the reader 
more than many pages of descriptive writing. One addi- 
tional set-up is submitted. It was devised by Dr. Arthur 
W. Proetz, of St. Louis, for the making of an outstanding 
motion picture of ciliary motion in the sinuses of the living 
mammal. His film attracted special attention at the 1933 
Scientific Assembly of the American Medical Association, 
where movie “competition” was exceedingly keen. At that 
meeting 20 projectors were going at once, all 16 mm. but 
two. The Proetz set-up, shown in picture No. 5, provides 
a clamp (a) to hold the animal immovably in place, the 
platform and clamp shifting in all directions, replacing the 
stage, mirror, and sub-stage of the microscope. The coni- 
cal glass tip (b) of the vertical illuminator (c) is lowered 

(Continued on Page 189) 

September 1933 • American Cinematographer 183 

Professional Effects 
...16 mm. economy 


brings yon many facilities previously 
available only to Hollywood cameramen 


H OME movie clubs . . . ambitious amateurs, 
scientists, engineers ... call Cine-Kodak 
Special “the master of movie miracles.” 
Precision-made, custom-built, this unusual 16 
mm. camera overcomes the restrictions of ordi- 
nary movie making technique. 


Note the sensational features illustrated to the 
right — only a few of the many possessed by Cine- 
Kodak Special. Others include the reflex finder 
which shows on a ground-glass screen the field 
of the taking lens — permits visual focusing with 
all lenses; variable speed control, from 8 to 64 
frames per second when spring-motor driven; 
double lens turret, mounting any two of the six 
lenses available for the Special; interchangeable 
film chambers permitting instant switching from 
one type of film to another;long-running, spring- 
motor drive and one- and eight-frame shafts for 
hand cranking, the latter also being used for wind- 
ing film back for dissolves or multiple exposures; 
two film meters, one geared directly to the cam- 
era mechanism recording the amount of film run 
or rewound, the other attached to the film cham- 
ber showing the amount of unexposed film. 


Cine-Kodak Special, with Kodak Anastigmat 
/. 1.9 lens, double lens turret, one ioo-foot film 
chamber, set of six masks — price, $375. Altera- 
tion for specific needs will be estimated. For 
complete details, write for the abundantly illus- 
trated Cine-Kodak Special Book. 

The variable shutter per- 
mits the making of fades, 
dissolves (illustrated), the 
recording of fast 
action in sharper 
images, and pro- 
vides extra con- 
trol of exposure 
under intensely 
brilliant light 

....... . ... 

Besides the single-frame 
crank shaft, the Special 
has a single-frame release 
button connected 
to its spring mo- 
tor, with either of 
I which “wipe” ti- 
! ties (illustrated), 
j I animation, and 
j ' other effects may 
be obtained. 


The Special’s masks are 
merely slipped into a slot 
in front of the film. Two 
vertical and two 
horizontal half 
masks, and a cir- 
cle and oval mask 
are supplied with 
the Special — 
other designs 
may be ordered. 


" — 

M e a cthhan Kodak Company, Rochester, New York 



American Cinematographer 9 September 1933 

EFFECTS. Is the cameraman or the 
director responsible for the artistic 
effects in motion pictures? 

Ivan Crawford, Portland, Ore. 

• The Cinematographer, is fully respon- 
sible for the photographic effects in a 
motion picture production. Selection of 
settings is made by the cinematographer 
in collaboration with the director, accord- 
ing to the requirements of the produc- 
tion. Interior settings are designed and 
finished by art-directors and decorators 
and the cinematographer is responsible 
for the artistic composition and lightings 
of the numerous scenes photographed in 
the setting, which is always photographed 
under a great variety of angles. 

J. A. DUBRAY, A. S. C. 

TITLES. Is if possible fo make first- 
class titles with sunlight and no 
artificial lights? If so, will you de- 
scribe and diagram the apparatus 
and method? 

J.A.R., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

• It is possible to take titles under either 
sunlight or diffused daylight. Titles can 
also be made in the shade if the shad- 
ows are not too deep. In fact, many 
prefer the shade as the light is even and 
there is no possibility of reflection back 
into the lens. This, of course, requires 
a larger lens opening, especially when 
using positive film for direct titles. Some 
interesting effects may be worked out on 
direct positive titles or negative titles 
when shot in the shade by the use of a 
flashlight playing on the title card in 
such a way as to imitate a beam of light 
crossing it, much as a searchlight. No 
special apparatus is required, the only 
requirement being that the title card be 
evenly illuminated and the camera so set 
that the axis of the lens is perpendicular 
to the title card surface at its center. 


VALUES. What is meant by values 
in a picture? 

R. Nixon, Indianapolis. 

• “Values” is a term originally used by 
painters, denoting the relation of the 
vanous elements of a picture; i.e., in the 


by A. S. C. Members 

composition, certain curved lines are ar- 
ranged to give VALUE to straight lines; 
certain forms are so placed to lend value 
to others. The term is more generally 
used as regards determining the juxta- 
position of colors or the depth of tones, 
the relation between the light, shade 
and shadow of the various objects, and 
also the distance as related to the fore- 
ground. In photography, for instance, se- 
lecting the background so that the lighted 
parts of the head will be relieved by 
darker areas in the background and the 
shadow side backed up by a lighter part 
of the background, is purely a matter 
of the knowledge of “values.” 


EXPOSURE. How does the Profes- 
sional Cinematographer regulate his 
exposure, with the lens stop or the 

L. Johnson, San Jose, Calif 

• The majority of the cinematographers 
control their exposure by manipulating 
the shutter, for the reason the more the 
lens is closed the more “wiry,” unpleas- 
antly sharp the picture becomes. By using 
the lens open and calculating the correct 
exposure with the shutter, the same de- 
gree of softness is maintained through- 
out. However, there are occasions where 
increased depth of focus is required, in 
which case the diaphragm of the lens is 


LENS NUMBERS. Hew has the 
numbering of the diaphragms of a 
lens been established? 

J.J.U., Ft. Atkinson, Wis. 

• The International Congress of Photog- 
raphy, held in Paris (France) in 1900, 
has decreed that diaphragm shall be 
characterized by a fraction of the form 
F-n, where n is the number obtained by 
dividing the absolute focal length of the 
lens by the equivalent diameter of the 

The diameters of the standard series 
of diaphragms shall be such that their 
progiession corresponds for each of its 
terms to an exposure double of the pre- 
ceding one. 

F-l; F-1.4; F-2; F-2.8; F-4; F-5.6; 
F-8; F-l 1.3; F-16; F-23; F-32; F-45. 

Each one of these stops has an area 
one-half the area of the preceding one. 

TITLING. In titling a picture is it 
best to use a past or present tense? 

L. Gross, Chicago. 

• As a general rule an audience if in- 
terested in the picture will “live with 
it.” The title is complementary to the 
action that the subject is performing right 
at the time that your audience is looking 
at it on the screen, therefore the present 
tense is generally the most adaptable to 


planning to make some animated 
cartoons in 16mm. What camera 
would you recommend, what sort of 
lighting would be the best, and do 
you know if there is any place where 
I could get celluloid and paper 
already punched? 

Carl R. Fallberg, Chicago, III. 

Almost any type of 16mm. camera that 
can be made to work a frame at a time 
will do: several of the better makes, such 
as the Victor and Filmo, as well as the old 
Model A Cine-Kodak, are fitted with 
hand-cranks, which can easily be geared 
down to single-frame action; but per- 
haps the best for this purpose is the 
Simplex, which already has an auto- 
matic single-frame movement. Of 
course, one with a focusing-mount lens is 
preferable, as most of these can be 
focused to two feet or less, which will 
be about the distance your drawings 
will be from the lens; but the fixed- 
focus mounts on the Victor, Filmo, and 
the cheaper Simplex models can be un- 
screwed, and so adjusted for such work, 
after a few tests. 

Ordinary Photoflood bulbs in proper 
reflectors will be excellent for this work, 
especially if you fit a tracing cloth dif- 
fuser. You should use two lamps, and 
take care to locate them so that the 
drawing is illuminated with perfect even- 
ness; also, see to it that the lamps do 
not reflect into the lens from the cover- 

I do not know of any firm supplying 
ready punched celluloid and paper: even 
if it were available, I believe it would 
be cheaper to perforate your own, using 
an ordinary double punch, such as you 
can get at any office-supply store. 


September 1933 # American Cinematographer 


Unretouched reproduction of 16mm Sound Film from which Animatophone reproduces. 

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without delicate, confusing controls or gadgets that need 
to be constantly checked or turned or “babied.” 

Distinctively different in design and principle, and em- 
bodying many remarkable new features, The Animato- 
phone not only insures superior results, but SUPERIOR 
results combined with amazing simplicity, maximum 


The Animatophone is fully equipped with everything 
from Tone and Volume Controls to a highly efficient sys- 
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Victor’s famous (and exclusive) automatic protection 
against film damage. Yet, with no essential feature 
lacking the Animatophone is the crowning example of 
Victor’s well-known genius for effecting almost unbe- 
lievable simplifications. 

Anyone can learn, within five minutes, to give an Ani- 
matophone presentation that will rival the finest pro- 
fessional showings — - in the small room, large auditorium, 
or out'of -doors. Thus, with the Animatophone, sound- 
on-film becomes completely practical for homes, schools, 
churches, industries, etc. 

Animatophone prices are the lowest ever quoted for 
fine Talking Picture Apparatus. Write NOW for litera- 
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Model 12B S-O-F Animatophone 
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American Cinematographer • September 1933 

Los Angeles Cine Club 

Holds Amateur Contest 

m*. . . . . 

Voss Shoots Chicago Fair 

® H. W. Voss, Cinephotographer, has 
made his annual migration to Wyoming 
from Florida, where he spends the win- 
ter. On his return trip he stopped off 
in Chicago to try out his new Cine Spe- 
cial 16 mm. Camera on the Chicago Fair. 
The accompanying photo shows Voss set 
for action in front of the Hollywood 

Voss is especially enthusiastic about 
color pictures and a part of his new Cine 
camera is the kodacolor attachment. 

500 See Prize Pictures 

• When W. Stuart Bussey, in association 
with the Club he conducts in Indiana- 
polis, presented the AMERICAN CINE- 
MATOGRAPHER 1932 Prize Winning 
Amateur Motion Pictures in the public 
library auditorium, an audience estimated 
at 500 viewed these outstanding 16 mm. 

Bussey presented the pictures for three 
nights and reports that each succeeding 
night the audience was bigger, with the 
last night’s attendance reaching 300. 

Among the clubs presenting these prize 
winning pictures in August were: Pend- 
leton (Oregon) Club on August 10th; 
Movie Makers of Grand Rapids (Mich.) 
on August 19th; Amateur Cinema Club 
of the Oranges, Orange, N. J. August 
20th; Club at Ossining, N. Y., on August 
26th; Greater Oakland Motion Picture 
Club on August 28th, and Cinema Club 
of San Francisco on August 29th. 

Among those exhibiting the prize pic- 
tures in September will be the Cinema 
Club of Philadelphia, September 11th; 
Amateur Movie Club, Austin, Minn., 
September 1 5th, Hudson County Cine 
Club, Jersey City, N. ]., September 20th, 
and the Amateur Cinema League, New- 
ark, N. J., September 26th. 

9 With an attendance averaging over 

100 at each of their monthly meetings, 
the Los Angeles Amateur Cine Club has 
found an added interest in a contest ex- 
tending through November. Each of three 
best pictures at each showing will be 
eligible to compete for final awards. 
These include a beaded standard sized 
screen offered by the Amateur Cinema 
League, a Victor camera by J. W. Rob- 
inson Co., and prizes by Eastman Kodak 
Co., and Bell Cr Howell. 

Notably are pictures entered by Mr. 
Richard Oden, “Up the Coast to Wash- 
ington,’’ taken in 8 mm. with lap dis- 
solves, fade-outs, and tinted in part. 
Messrs. Wayne Fisher and Fred Cham- 

Leica Photo by Gilbert Morgan 

Cinefilmer Turrets 
Stewart- Warner 

® Through the courtesy of T. R. Craig, 
of the Craig Movie Supply Company, 
Pacific Coast representative of the Stew- 
art-Warner line of photographic equip- 
ment, we are able to present the photo 
above of the semi-professionalized Stew- 
art-Warner Camera as reconstructed by 
Emil Vollenweider of Sacramento, an 
electrical engineer by profession and a 
Cinefilmer by choice. 

Vollenweider has equipped it with 
a three-turret lens mount, as can be 
noticed by the above photograph. He 
also has installed a focusing tube which 
is always in line with one of the lenses 
on the left side of the camera. On the 
right side he has constructed a view- 
finder with the rear 'element built for 
parralex at all distances from close-ups 
to infinity. 

pion combined their National Air Race 
film to include all of the daring stunts 
and flights, with night shots and close- 
ups taken on the field of Amelia Ear- 
hart, Roscoe Turner, Mary Pickford, Tom 
Mix, etc. Mr. C. Earl Memory’s pic- 
ture, “One Day In Her Life,’’ a human 
interest film of children, is also a con- 

President C. E. Memory’s plan of using 
every other meeting for members’ films, 
with a committee to offer constructive 
criticism, and alternating with discus- 
sions by professional experts who demon- 
strate by feature films, has done much 
to increase the club’s membership. 

British Cine Organization 
Issues Monthly Bulletin 

9 Bearing the title of “I.A.C. Bulletin,” 
the Institute of Amateur Cinematog- 
raphers, Ltd., of England, issue a monthly 
bulletin to those members who are de- 
sirous of receiving it, which both in 
format and contents is an ideal piece of 
literature for this purpose. 

In addition to interpretations of the 
spirit of the organization, its rules and 
by-laws, it also contains many fine and 
helpful articles for the members. 

The clean-cut manner in which this 
Institute has been organized with its 
common-sense rules and regulations and 
including, as it does, not only Cinefilm- 
ers but also business organizations, makes 
it representative of the entire industry 
in Great Britain. 

As a concrete evidence of the construc- 
tive spirit which lies back of this organi- 
zation we quote its code of ethics: “We 
members of the Institute of Amateur 
Cinematographers of the British Empire 
pledge ourselves to a faithful discharge 
of our duties, and that we will hold to 
the utmost of our power the amateur 
status in act as well as in deed. We 
further undertake as members that we 
will not cause or suffer, either by act, 
word or deed, anything that might be 
thought, outside this Institute, derogatory 
to amateur cinematography in general, 
but maintain and uphold the status of 
the amateur as we members and our 
Memorandum of Articles of Association 
conceive them.” 

Bussey Filming Satire 

• W. Stuart Bussey, who recently formed 
an Amateur Club in Indianapolis, is 
busy filming a satire which has been 
titled “Four Knights in a Bar-room.” 
When finished it is the intention of Bus- 
sey and his associates to enter this pro- 
duction in the AMERICAN CINEMA- 
TOGRAPHER 1933 competition. 

September 1 933 # American Cinematographer 1 87 

S O O N... 

Amateur Competition is open to amateurs all 
over the world who use either 8, 9 Vi, or 1 6 mm. 

The films must be in the offices of the 
than October 31, 1933. 

There are no restrictions as to the number of 
subjects that may be entered nor are there any 
restrictions as to the length of the subjects. The 
one strict rule that applies, however, is that no 
professional help is received in the making of 
the picture. This does not include titles which 
may be made at a laboratory. ____ 

The recognition of those who are given awards 
will be in the nature of a gold medallion which 
will be given by the American Society of Cinema- 
tographers who will be the judges of these pic- 

The pictures will be given classifications so 
that the competition may be fair to all entrants. 
By this we mean that an entrant having a docu- 
mentary film will not compete with one who has 
based his on a scenario. Of course, there will be 
more classifications than these. The classifica- 
tions will be created according to the pictures 
that are received. 

Please remember your films must be in the of- 
6331 Hollywood Boulevard, Hollywood, Calif., 
not later than October 31,1 933. 


American Cinematographer 0 September 1933 

“The Unit With An 
Optical System” 

SOLITE REFLECTOR, Showing mirror 
lens that concentrates and multiplies 
light output. 

Solite Reflectors 
Make Cameras 
Perform Brilliantly 

It’s penny wise and pound foolish 
to spend good money on a fine 
camera — then economize unwisely 
on indoor illumination equipment. 
Listen to the EXTRA values your 
money buys in a SOLITE UNIT 
REFLECTOR: A lighting unit 

exactingly engineered by a leading 
lighting technician. Equipped with 
mirror lens that concentrates and 
multiplies light output. Uses 
powerful, long-life T20-500 watt 
bulb . . . assures against rapid loss 
of illumination efficiency. SOLITE 
UNITS are self-contained. Use one 
or a dozen on the same Solite 
Tripod. Built ruggedly for a life- 
time. PRICES: Solite Reflector 
$7.50; with Jr. Tripod $1 1. Solite 
Kit, with 3 Solites, 2 Tripods, 2 
cables, complete in case $42.50. 

Ask about the New Solite 

Gives perfect diffusion without loss 
of light. Makes indoor color pic- 
tures easy. Fits any Solite. Price 
each, $3.50 

(All prices slightly higher 
West of Rockies) 

Write for full information to 
Solite Sales Company, 1373-6th 
Ave., New York. DEALERS NOTE: 
We will be compelled to increase 
prices Oct. 1st. Place your order 



Preferred by the “Light-Wise” 
From Coast to Coast 

Slow Motion 

(Continued from Page 180) 
gets down to the level of the board. I 
know of no one who has ever noticed 
this fact in viewing the actual dive. It 
is possible to detect the work of particu- 
lar muscles at any point. 

Not only are slow motion pictures in- 
structive, but unusually pleasing to view 
due to their added gracefulness. It 
seems that one never tires of seeing 128 
frame per second pictures of Johnny Riley 
doing all of his dives. The difference 
between success and failure is as little 
as the thickness of one piece of tissue 
paper. In this day, in order to reach 
record marks it is necessary to take ad- 
vantage of every detail, each adding the 
nth degree necessary towards perfection 
and the nth degree may be detected 
easily in slow motion pictures. In the 
case of field and track events, slow mo- 
tion pictures show the difference be- 
tween just good work and record break- 
ing work. Take the seemingly simple 
task of putting the shot. John Lyman of 
Stanford University not only times his 
whole form perfectly, but he adds the 
power of the finger thrust, and that 
added accomplishment puts him in the 
limelight. Slow motion pictures viewed 
by the average shot putter show him just 
where he can improve in order to ap- 
proach world records or at least to great- 
ly improve. 

Let us diverge for a moment into the 
mechanics of the projector and the cam- 
era so that we might see more clearly 
why slow motion occurs, what the rela- 
tive speed ratios are and the action on 
the film itself and then on the screen. 

A 1 6 mm. projector running at the 
rate of 16 pictures per second shows 
1 60 frames in ten seconds. As there 
are forty pictures to the foot, ten sec- 
onds at the above speed shows four feet 
of film. Film photographed at the same 
rate of speed presents normal action on 
the screen in that it takes the same 
period of time to project the action as 
it did to record it. 

If an athlete runs the 100 yards in 
ten seconds flat, he is moving at the 
rate of thirty feet per second. Photo- 
graphed at the normal speed of sixteen 
pictures per second, one picture is taken 
every 22 Vz inches of the runner’s prog- 
ress. Motion pictures taken in this manner 
show considerable blur as one picture 
shows one of the runner’s legs stretched 
forward and in the next picture the same 
leg is almost vertical and the foot is on 
the ground. The difference between the 
two pictures is called the displacement. 
The closer the camera to the runner, 
the greater the film displacement. (Note 
the difference between object and film 
displacement.) It is plain to be seen 
that such motion pictures would not be 
satisfactory for form analysis. 

In Athletics 

Should the speed of the camera be 
doubled to thirty-two frames per second, 
and the same runner photographed, the 
object displacement would be decreased 
by one-half or an eleven and one-fourth 
inch difference between pictures. The 
100-yard run made in ten seconds would 
then require eight instead of four feet 
of film to record it. Therefore it takes 
twice as long for projection at normal 
speed, consequently cutting the screen 
action to one-half. The same scene pho- 
tographed at sixty-four speed has an ob- 
ject displacement of 5.62 inches, using 
sixteen feet of film and reproducing the 
action four times slower than normal. 

It is also possible to photograph 16 
mm. motion pictures at the rate of 1 28 
frames per second. In this case, the 
mentioned runner is recorded at a 2.81 
inch displacement and slows down the 
screen action to one-eighth. It takes 
one minute and twenty seconds to re- 
produce what actually happened in ten 

A Professional Discusses 

(Continued from Page 177) 

You were urged, in a recent article in 
this magazine, to see the Fox Movietone 
Magic Carpets to get an idea of just how 
the professional goes about giving you 
the spirit of a city. The best advice I 
can give is to reiterate that statement 
. . . see those professional pictures if you 
are going to travel. You will find they 
are made in what is termed “silent pic- 
tures.” They have titles and sound is 
dubbed into them. Even if some of the 
explanatory talk was eliminated they 
would still be understandable. 

While the amateur has not a great 
deal of time for preparation, still just a 
few minutes’ thought before shooting will 
often give you the sort of continuity that 
will bring your pictures up to profes- 
sional standards. 

Even if you master all of the techni- 
cal details of photography you will find 
your most satisfactory efforts will be 
those in which you have given thought 
to continuity. 

Ernie Page Marries 

® Ernie Page who, together with William 

A. Palmer, made the picture, “Tarzan 
Junior,” which was awarded the first 
prize in the AMERICAN CINEMATO- 
GRAPHER 1932 Amateur Competition, is 
announced by Palmer as now being 
among the married. 

On July 16th Page married Miss Mur- 
dock and spent his honeymoon on the 
Monterey Peninsula and at Yosemite Val- 

Page, having graduated this year from 
Stanford, is now stationed at the High- 
land Hospital, Oakland, as an interne. 


September 1933 • American Cinematographer 189 

Illustration No. 5 — The Poetz Set-up 

Cinemicroscopy With 
16 mm. Equipment 

(Continued from Page 182) 
into the wound where the cilia can be 
seen. Two glass tubes (d) supply fluids 
and remove them by suction. They are 
held in place by a support (e) fastened 
to the microscope by a universal joint. 
The reflex focuser is seen in place at (f) 
fitted to the camera (g), which is sus- 
pended on a firm adjustable overhead 
support (m-1). A small incandescent 
bulb (i) supplies illumination during the 
set-up, and is replaced by the arc (j), 
projected through a water cell (k), when 
photography begins. The cable release 

(h) shifts a small mirror in (c) when 
one form of illumination is to replace the 

The five set-ups outlined above have 
all been used in successful cinemicro- 
scopy. Three have been previously de- 
scribed in the literature referred to in 
this paper, and for a more detailed con- 
sideration the reader is referred to the 
original articles. Mr. Mitchell’s paper is 
particularly interesting in view of its de- 
tailed technical consideration of results 
obtained from different types of carbons 
with different film emulsions. 

A description of the “tools,” as given 
here, is by no means a course in how to 
use them. Such a course is beyond the 
scope of present space. While cinemi- 
croscopy is certainly not the easiest form 
of movie-making, it is, indeed, one of 
the most interesting. It calls into use 
everything a man has learned about mo- 
tion picture making, about still photo- 
micrography, and about clinical technique. 
It involves highly special problems of 
illumination, exposure, filters, elimination 
of vibration and reflections, etc. How- 
ever, amateurs and professionals both are 
getting exceedingly useful results, and 
are having a lot of fun besides. 

(*) Heinz Rosenberger, Rockefeller Institute 
for Medical Research, “Micro-Cinema in Medi- 
cal Research.” Trans. S.M.P.E., XI, 32, pp. 750- 

(**) Richard B. Stout, M.D., “Clinical Cine- 

microscopy” Jnl. of the Biological Photographic 
Association I, 1, pp. 18-21. 

(***) r Fawn Mitchell, “The Cinematogra- 
phy of the Brownian Movement with the 
Filmo Camera” Trans. S.M.P.E., XV, 5, pp. 




with a self - contained Light - Source 

Working on an entirely 
new principle, the Trix 
Exposure Meter is ex- 
tremely dependable, han- 
dy, and of simple manip- 
ulation. It possesses a 
self-contained, luminous 
light source on a disc 
coated with a fluorescent 
substance and is highly 
automatic in its action. 

Further information on 

Universal Green Filters 

Manufactured by Dr. Kellner and ex- 
clusively distributed in the U. S. by 
C. P. Cioerz. Pan-Ortho Green Filters 
are primarily intended for the absorp- 
tion of the red intensity of the new 
panchromatic emulsions, but are dis- 
finctly universal filters as they provide 
a proper color rendition for the whole 
gamut of colors, including blue-violet. 
Consequently they may be used to dis- 
tinct advantage with orthochromatic 
film as well. Further information on re- 

C. P. Coerz American Optical Co. 
317 East 34th St. New York 

Fifty ft.- 16mm CINE-CORREX 





for 50 feet 16mm film 

No. 109 Outfit consists of one 
No. 1 1 2 Tank, 1 0 in. diameter, 
two reels No. 1 21 , one reel top 
No. 123, one Correx apron 
No. 156, one loading^ 
apparatus No. 134 - 

It is now possible to 

Develop your own 16mm Films 

easily by using the simplified 


for 100 feet 16mm film 

The Correx loading apparatus in conjunction with the 
Correx reels, both of which are part of the complete 
developing outfit, permits loading and developing in com- 
plete darkness. The peculiar corrugated edges of the 
Correx apron hold the film suspended between them, grip- 
ping the film only at its extreme edges, yet permitting free 
access of solution to any part of the film. The tanks re- 
quire only about 68 ozs. of developer for each 50 feet of 

No. 209 Complete Correx Developing Outfit for film length 
up to 100 feet consists of one No. 211 Tank — 13% in. 
diameter, two reels No. 221, one reel top No. 

223, one Correx apron No. 256, one loading 
apparatus No. 234 ------ 


1 10 WEST 32nd STREET - - NEW YORK 



American Cinematographer • September 1933 

« Comedies 


« Dramas 
a Cartoons 

All new, interesting sub- 
jects made from original 
negatives on 400 ft. rolls. 

e Novelties 

Prices from $10.25 fo 
$12.50. 64 Subjecfs. 

o Action 

Catalog will be sent on re- 


ceipt of stamped envelope 

M A VI 1 IO 1 757 Broadway Brooklyn. N. Y. 


JR. SPLICER *3.50 

Available ineither8mmor l6mm models. 
Makes a perfect straight splice that runs 
thru projector smoothly and noiselessly. 

Combination * 9.50 

A Craig Jr., a free-running post, and a 
Thalhammersilentrewinder on long board. 


1031 South Broadway 

Represented by Ampro in the East 

Their Simplicity 
and ease of Op- 
eration make 
them the ideal 
printers for 
home labora- 


391 5 W. 3rd St. 

16 MM. 

Model “E” 

Equipping the 



(Continued from Page 176) 
any rigid connection. When putting the 
film on the drum, always run it between 
two surfaces of moist chamois, to remove 
excess water, and to prevent the forma- 
tion of water-marks, as well as to re- 
move any dirt or foreign matter on 
the film. For the best results, the dry- 
ing-drum should be revolved at about 
100 revolutions per minute while dry- 
ing, to expedite the drying, and to assure 
that the film dries evenly. This can 
easily be done by belting a small electric 
motor to the drum, using the drum it- 
self as the large pulley. Under normal 
conditions, 100 feet of film will dry on 
a drum in about ten or fifteen minutes. 

There are, fortunately or unfortu- 
nately, as one may look at the situation, 
only a few types of printers for 16 mm. 
film available in this country at present: 
the outstanding ones are the “Arri” step 
(or intermittent) printer, recently de- 
scribed in this magazine, and bearing the 
official Seal of Approval of the Testing 
Committee of the American Society of 
Cinematographers; the Stinemann and 
Uhler. It is also possible — though not 
always advisable — to convert some types 
of cameras and projectors (such as the 
Model A Eastman Cine-Kodaks and Ko- 
dascopes) into improvised printers. I 
have, indeed, seen some very presentable 
printing done on a Model A Eastman pro- 
jector; but, naturally, the best results 
will be had using a regular printer. 

The technique of printing motion pic- 
ture positives resembles that of printing 
still pictures in that the negative and 
the unexposed positive are run through 
the machine together, and the later is 
exposed through the negative, and then 
developed. Just as in still printing, you 
can vary the time of exposure, so, too, 
in cine-printing, you can vary the speed 
of the machine: but you can also vary 
the intensity of the printing-light, and 
this is done more often than the speed 
is changed. In practice, it is wise to 
make tests of every scene, making a note 
of the proper light-setting, and then 
patch an inch or two of raw positive into 
the negative, to show when to change 
the light. Positive-film, of course, is 
developed, fixed, washed and dried the 
same as negative, except that you can 
work by a moderately bright red light. 
Incidentally, since most printers, tor rea- 
sons best known to their makers, are not 
fitted with a take-up mechanism, you 
will find a cloth-lined hamper, into 
which the two films from the printer can 
drop, a most useful accessory. It is also 
valuable in unloading the drying-drum, 
by the way. 

In all stages of motion picture labora- 
tory-work — and doubly so when 16 mm. 
film is being used — cleanliness is of vital 
importance: be sure that your reels, ap- 
rons, racks, tanks, etc., are perfectly 
clean; that your water-supply is pure and 
clean; that the air is as dust-free as pos- 
sible, and that the film never falls on 
the floor (which should be clean, any- 
way). Then, you can expect quality re- 
sults — and an amazing instruction in 
practical cinematography. 

Miniature Negative and 

(Continued from Page 179) 
should be added and when this is com- 
pletely dissolved the Borax and Tri-Basic 
Sodium Phosphate may be added to com- 
plete the developer. This developer 
should only be made up at the time of 
use as it does not keep well in solution. 

The developing tank should be agitated 
at frequent intervals to prevent the 
formation of streaks of varying densities 
due to a stagnant condition of the de- 
veloper. Agitation, while it does not 
seem to have an appreciable effect on 
the grain size, will produce a more rapid 
development and a greater contrast than 
will a stagnant development. 

The way the film is dried has some 
effect on the ultimate fine grain result. 
When it is hung up to dry, both sides 
shoulo be wiped free of excess water by 
means of a piece of clean chamois. This 
not cleans the film of tiny particles 
of dirl which may have been in the wash 
water but also prevents water streaks 
and promotes rapid drying, which keeps 
the grain size down. Since the top of the 
suspended film dries first, it is wise in the 
interest of securing a harmonious grain 
result on all the negatives, to reverse it 
at times end for end so that the entire 
strip of film will dry almost simul- 

There but remains the problem of en- 
larging, which does not rightly come 
within the scope of this paper. It is suf- 
ficient to say that an enlarger should be 
selected which employs a condenser sys- 
tem emitting parallel rays of light which 
keeps the grain and mechanical defects 
of a negative down to an absolute 


This developer is sold either as the free 
base or as salts (usually the hydrochlo- 
ride). The free base and the water sol- 
uable salts may cause eczema wherever 
their dust touches the skin. This does not 
occur with the aqueous solutions of these 
salts, and it can be avoided, even with 


September 1933 • American Cinematographer 


Biotar F/l .4 

Ultra - speed lens 
of highest correc- 
tion. In 20, 25, 40, 
50 mm. focus for 
16 mm., and in 
40, 50, 70 mm. 
focus for 35 mm. 

Tessar F/2.7 

Extra Rapid, wide- 
angle objectives. 
In 15, 25, 50 mm. 
focus for 1 6 mm., 
and in 40, 50 mm. 
focus for 35 Trim, 

Tessar F/3.5 

Universal lens of 
increased light- 
gathering capacity. 
In 50 mm. focus 
for 16 mm., and 
in 40, 50, 105 

mm. focus for 35 
mm. cameras. 

Tele-Tessar F/4; 

Special objectives for 
obtaining larger pic- 
torial details. In F/4 
with 75, 100, 150 mm., 
and in F/6.3 with 120 
mm. focus for 16 mm. 

See your dealer or write for booklet 

485 Fifth Avenue 
New York 


728 So. Hill Street 
Los Angeles 


for every 16 mm. 

Announcing the first 


Library Subjects 

Full, natural color movies without extra projection 
attachments of any kind, because the color is right 
in the film itself. No extra light is needed in your 
projector — the Dunning Natural Color can be pro- 
jected to as large a size and with as full illumination 
as your black and white pictures. 

Two library color subjects — “Hawaii’s Lake of Fire” 
and “In the Blackfoot Country” (each approximately 
100 feet) can now be supplied by all better dealers 
at $9.00 each. New releases will be issued each 
month. Patronize your local dealer. 





Tie dry product, by using it in the form 
of sulphate or other salt insoluble in pure 
water and soluble only in sulphite or al- 
Kali solutions. — Extract from Clerc’s 

“Photography, Theory and Practice,” p. 
232. Edit. 1930. 

Note: Paraphenylene-diamine and Tri- 
Basic Sodium Phosphate cannot ordinarily 
be secured from the average dealer in 
photographic supplies. However, it can 
be secured from the R. J. Fitzsimmons 
Corp., 75 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y., 
who are importers of the chemicals. 

My “Sierra Special Sixteen” 

(Continued from Page 181) 
and is applicable to the 400-foot maga- 
zine as well, A variable field viewfinder 
is mounted in a turret alongside the lens 
on a hinged bracket so that it may be 
turned up against the camera when not 
in use. This turret is calibrated to com- 
pensate for parallax and match any lens 
that is being used. Above the finder is 
mounted a distance meter which is sim- 
ply a critical focusing device calibrated 
in feet. 

The three lens turret fits into the front 
of the camera flush, and locks in the 
three positions. A rotary shutter is used 
having a 220-degree opening. The shutter 
shaft carries a cam which the releas etrig- 
ger engages to stop, always at the same 
place. The shutter is arranged to stop 
just as the aperture is covered. Thus in 
starting, the shutter gets practically up 
to speed before the first exposure is 
made. Fades are made by an automatic 
dissolve device just in front of the lens. 
This device supports the small end of 
the bellows of the effect device, the 
whole thing resting on steel tubes pro- 
jecting from the front of the camera. 
The effect device houses the filter holder, 
mask box, and iris for circle effects, all 
of which are indispensable at times. 

The entire assembly is extremely rigid 
and the camera is not unduly noisy con- 
sidering all the moving parts there are in 
it. The main body of the camera is a 
cast aluminum box or shell of Vs -inch 
thickness, having one vertical partition 
and one horizontal, both cast integral. 
Bronze bushings are used throughout, 
and are oiled from the top of the camera 
through small tubes. One set of ball 
bearings is used on the main camera shaft 
to take care of the thrust from the bevel 
gears. The writer is quite well satisfied 
with the job as it is the first purely me- 
chanical thing of any consequence that 
he ever undertook to build. The camera 
is essentially a studio type and will prob- 
ably be employed more for amateur 
photoplays than any other purpose. In 
this connection it might be mentioned 
that the camera gets its name from the 
“Sierra Cinema League,” the local movie 
club with which the writer is associated, 
and to which his efforts are dedicated. 

Greenbrier Starts Picture 

• Now that script troubles have been 
solved at the Cteenbrier Amateur Mo- 
tion Picture Club that organization is 
busy putting their new story, “The Prodi- 
gal Wife,” in the “box.” 

This picture, it is announced, will be 
the entry of that club in the 1933 com- 
petition of the AMERICAN CINEMA- 

Among those included in the cast are 
Genevieve Wyatt, Robert W. Waller, 
Laddie Frechem, John Frechem and Hal 
Morey, the intrepid cameraman and sec- 
retary of the club. The picture is being 

directed by R. H. Patterson, club presi- 
dent, and Guno Karlberg is also numbered 
among the cinephotographers on the pro- 

To Make Religious Picture 

• Vincente Mills of Manila, Philippines, 
for his entry in the AMERICAN CINE- 
MATOGRAPHER 1933 competition will 
make a religious picture built around the 
practice in his country which takes place 
during Holy Thursday and Good Friday 
each year. As this practice is fast dis- 
appearing, according to Mills, it will also 
act as a fine historic record. 


American Cinematographer # September 1933 

Using Single Perforation Standards 

• Illustration shows 1000-foot 
magazines for continuous run 
of 28 minutes. 400-ft. maga- 
zines optional. 

• Furnished for glow lamp 
(density) or galvanometer 
variable area) recording, or 

• May be had with or without 
associated amplifier equip- 

• Write for prices and details. 

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200 ft. — Abbreviated ....$20.00 
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with Bell & Howell Company 

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Hollywood, Calif. 




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S3. 00 per 100 ft., including processing 

Duplicating $3.50 per 100 ft. 

(Plus Postage) 



2906 W. 78th PI. Inglewood, Calif. 

Sensitometric Control in the 
Processing of Motion 
Picture Film 

(Continued from Page 169) 

Again in must be borne in mind that 
by this system of development the so- 
lution was maintained constant within 
very narrow limits to produce the same 
degree of development. The contrasts 
that were exhibited by the various nega- 
tives were the result of the various 
brightness contrasts in the scenes photo- 
graphed. Inasmuch as it is the practice 
of this laboratory to develop the bulk of 
its work for a fixed time of development, 
the cameramen realize that any change 
they make in their exposure conditions 
will be evidenced in their negatives. 

By the test system of development it 
is first necessary to construct a short 
time-gamma curve, similar to the one 
shown in Figure 5. From that curve it is 
possible to determine the time required 
to give the normal gamma. In this sys- 
tem the time is varied, dependent upon 
the judgment of the man in charge of 
the negative development, and because 
each laboratory accurately records all 
sensitometric data it is quite possible to 
determine just what control gamma is 
obtained at any time of development 
other than normal. This is done, of 
course, by referring to the time-gamma 
curve previously established. The system 
of control of the solution over a period 
of time, when the test system is used, is 
done in a manner identical to that which 
is described above for the constant time 
of development method. 

The developers in general use for the 
development of picture negatives are 
modifications of the standard E.K. D-76 
borax formula. They are modified to fit 
the needs of the various types of devel- 
oping machines. Quite naturally, all 
laboratories do not use the same formula, 
even though there is a similarity in the 
machines used. Differences of opinion as 
to photographic quality and differences in 
the recirculation and agitation of solu- 
tions are factors which enter into the 
question of developer formula differences. 
In the final analysis there is not a great 
deal of difference between the various 
negative formulas in use in the various 
laboratories in Hollywood. It is desirable, 
however, to include in this paper a typi- 
cal machine negative developer formula. 
Developers of this general composition 
are in use today and produce excellent 

results. The formula quoted in Table 4 
shows the chemical composition of such 
a developer. 

Table 4 

Picture Negative Formula 

Elon 1 lb. 1 5 ozs. 

Sodium sulphite. 96 lb. 

Hydroquinone 4 lb. 13 ozs. 

Borax 1 lb. 1 2 ozs. 

Water to 1 20 gals. 


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245 West 55th St. New York 

September 1933 © American Cinematographer 193 

Purpose and Practice of Diffusion 

(Continued from Page 171) 

Practically speaking, the use and meth- 
od of diffusion must in a great measure 
depend upon several factors: the story, 
the requirements of the individual scenes; 
the lighting and photographic technique 
of the cinematographer; the needs of 
players, sets, costumes, etc., and various 
other minor considerations, including, in 
some cases, the characteristics of the lab- 
oratory processing the film. (I have ac- 
tually known of instances in which a 
cinematographer, going from one studio 
to another, has found it impractical to 
use his previous diffusion technique sole- 
ly on account of the characteristics of 
the different laboratories involved.) 

None the less, I believe that certain 
general principles can be suggested. In 
the first place, diffusion as a whole should 
be governed to a great extent by the 
nature of the story in production; clearly, 
an ultra-realistic or melodramatic story, 
such as “Scarface,” on the one hand, or 
“Jekyll and Hyde,” on the other, de- 
mands a definite harshness and contrast 
in the photography; clearly, diffusion will 
be of little use here. The same is true 
of broad comedy, where high-key lighting 
must flood every corner of the set, so 
that no slightest bit of action is lost. 
The more polished, dramatic comedy and 
comedy-drama, on the other hand, are 
usually enhanced by a consistent, though 
slight, diffusion throughout. Most dra- 
mas, of course, demand a greater degree 
of diffusion, whiie romantic or senti- 
mental plots almost always call for the 
greatest degree of diffusion of all. 

sequence without observing the proper 
diffusion continuity. I have in mind a 
sequence in a recent production, photo- 
graphed by a representative artist, and 
co-starring two outstanding stars. Dra- 
matically, this sequence was one of the 
climactic points of the story, and gave 
both of the principals some of their big- 
gest scenes. Yet it had been made with 
no attempt at the observance ot conti- 
nuity of diffusion. The opening shot was 
a long-shot, planting the room and the 
players. This was nicely treated with an 
attractive, though very slight, diffusion. 
The several scenes following were close- 
ups of the woman star reading some high- 
ly important lines. As the action was of 
an emotional nature, these shots were 
made quite soft. The next two shots 
were a medium-shot of the woman, with 
the man in the foreground, followed by 
a close-up of the man. These were made 
with no diffusion- — -and struck the be- 
holder like a blow (there are instances 
where this treatment is desirable, but 
this was not one of them), for it dis- 
trated the attention to the obvious 
change in quality and tonal value of the 
contrasting scenes. Immediately followed 
another heavily diffused close-up of the 
woman, which lost its effectiveness by 
the jarring contrast in visual quality 
which it accentuated. A proper under- 
standing of diffusion continuity would 
have eliminated these visual contrasts, 
and strengthened the sequence appre- 
ciably. To treat soch a sequence prop- 
erly, it would be the cinematographer’s 
problem, first of all, to determine wheth- 
Continued on next page 




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Following the same line of reasoning, 
the average long-shot requires but little 
diffusion (unless the set is “spotty,” and 
the diffusion is necessary to suppress ele- 
ments likely to distract the attention from 
the essential action ), while as the camera 
is brough closer and closer to the player, 
more and more diffusion is permissible. 
Similarly, women require more diffusion 
than do men; and older players more, as 
a rule, than do younger ones. 

These facts, which are generally ac- 
knowledged, give rise, however,, to 
abuses which are frequently serious. I 
refer particularly to unnecessary diffu- 
sion and to inconsistent diffusion. We 
have frequently seen pictures in which 
diffusion has been used in photographing 
feminine players — especially in close-ups 
— when there was no need for it, or at 
least, no need for so excessive a degree 
of diffusion. Conversely, we have all 
seen shots in which actors have been 
photographed without diffusion when the 
requirements of good dramatic photogra- 
phy would have been better satisfied had 
at least a slight softness been used. 

But the gravest mistake is to make a 




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American Cinematographer O September 1933 


Lithuanian Newsreel 

Aug. 8, 1933. 

Herman A. DeVry, Inc. 

1111 Center Street 
Chicago, III. 

Gentlemen : 

As you know, I have just finished taking 7,000 feet of 
test film with your new portable recording camera and 
am thoroughly convinced, after taking these pictures, 
under all conditions from Chicago to New York, Detroit 
and in studios, that it is the finest equipment of its kind 
on the market. 

My sole reason for coming to America was to secure the 
finest camera and recorder to take back with me, as I 
have a great and important mission ahead. There are 
no Lithuanian talking pictures at present, so it was 
necessary for me to make the above test before buying. 
If this letter will save any other prospective users of 
sound recording equipment the time and money I have 
spent in assuring myself that your equipment is perfect, 

I will be most glad to have you use it as a testimonial. 

Very truly yours, 




Now made for single or double recording, or bi-pack 
color recording. Write also for particulars of new straight 
feed 1000-watt Lamp Sound Projector. 

'Herman A. DeVry, Inc. 1 

1111 Center Street 


Continued from page 193 
er the sequence, dramatically speaking, 
was the man’s or the woman’s. In this 
instance, it was the latter: accordingly, 
he would have to modify his technique 
and use some diffusion on the man, so 
that the sequence might remain visually 
uniform; if necessary, he could light the 
man a bit harder than usual, to compen- 
sate. If, on the other hand, it were the 
man’s sequence — that is, if his action, 
reaction and dialog took precedence — the 
best treatment would be to reduce the 
diffusion upon the woman — possibly com- 
pensating by softer lighting — and bring 
the sequence into visual co-ordination 
this way. 

It would be hardly advisable — even if 
the space permitted — to discuss in great 
detail the individual media for producing 
diffused effects, for every cinematogra- 
pher already has his individual prefer- 
ences, based on his individual require- 
ments and technique; moreover, the 
conditions of each scene must in them- 
selves dictate to a great extent the means 
used to produce any desired effect. Were 
I to state, for instance, that I preferred 
an Eastman V 4 OB, or an MP-A diffusion 
disc, a throng of my fellow-workers 
would protest that they were getting 
equally good results with, say a Vs 
Scheibe or Harrison diffuser. I can only 
say that the best policy is to learn defi- 
nitely what each will do, and how it does 
it: then make your selection according to 
the work that must be done. In some 
instances, a simple softening of the image 
will be desired; in others, a spreading of 
the highlights, while in yet others an all 
but imperceptible greying of the image is 
wanted. The main thing is to diffuse in- 
telligently; to maintain a definite conti- 
nuity of diffusion throughout your pro- 
duction, and especially within each se- 
quence: and to learn not to get caught 
at any artistic artifice — especially diffu- 


© Stolen on Location in Pasadena • — 
Leica Camera, Model D, No. 85940, 
Elmar F/3.5 lens, Everready case, 1 
roll Dupont Superior film, Key No. 
OK38437, belongs to John Boyle. Any- 
one knowing anything about this camera 
communicate with John Boyle, care of 
American Cinematographer. 


in 96% 
iliM' — of the studios 


of the world 





September 1933 9 American Cinematographer 


Practical Side of Laboratory 

(Continued from Page 168) 
trolled with great exactitude. So suc- 
cessful has this system proven — and so 
amenable to individualized manipulation 
— that we have no intention of abandon- 
ing it, even though we have long used 
machines for the development of positive 

Moreover, in our plant we rely upon 
the test system more completely, I be- 
lieve, than is the case in any other major 
laboratory. It requires more work on 
the part of the laboratory personnel, it is 
true; but it produces more consistent re- 
sults — and we have found it well worth 
while, economically speaking, due to its 
reduction of the possibility of retakes 
caused by mistakes in camerawork or 

Accordingly, we require an unusual 
number of tests from the cameramen: 
every set-up or change of lighting or set 
must invariably be accompanied by a lab- 
oratory test. These tests are segregated, 
and put through our normal development 
before any of the body of the day’s takes 
are allowed to go through. From these 
tests we are enabled to judge with the 
utmost accuracy exactly the best treat- 
ment to give to the accompanying scenes. 
In many instances, normal development 
would be adequate; it would produce a 
satisfactorily printable picture: but by 
modifying the development either under 
or over normal we can produce a perfect 
picture rather than a merely adequate 
one. Moreover, by this method we are 
enabled to detect — and compensate for — 
many minor differences in lighting, in 
the color-temperature of lights, and other 
minutiae which would otherwise pass un- 
noticed, since they cannot easily be de- 
tected by the men actually on the set. 

Accordingly, we adhere rigidly to this 
system of exhaustive tests. It is, of 
course, an easy matter, once the tests are 
properly segregated, to assemble all of 
the negative adapted to normal devel- 
opment, all that is to receive modified 
treatment, and send each lot through for 
its specified time. Thereafter, the mat- 
ter of making densitometric and cinex 
tests, printing, assembling, and inspect- 
ing, is purely routine. 

Of importance scarcely secondary to 
that of flexibility of procedure and de- 
pendence upon laboratory tests is the vital 
question of rigid standardization of all 
methods and equipment where such 
standardization is possible. The impor- 
tance, for instance, of rigid standards of 
developer-strength and temperature is 
well known, as is the maintenance of a 
uniform temperature in all the solutions, 
and of controlled temperature and hu- 
midity in the drying process. Scientific 
writers, such as Emery Huse, A.S.C., have 
also pointed out the value of continual 
sensitometric tests of all raw stock used. 

< V/ide World 

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camera to carry on my round- 
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advantages. It is the one camera 
I could depend upon for a com- 
plete photographic record of my 

round-the-world flight.” 

Now the LEICA Camera has mastered the com- 
plete second! For the first time a camera with 
a focal plane shutter makes possible speeds of 
1, Vi, V 4 , and 1 /h seconds, including all inter- 
mediate speeds, in addition to the regular 
speeds between 1 -20th and 1 -500th seconds. 
Instantly set for any* speed. No confusing 
scales to adjust. 

Accuracy and scope of shutter performance 
that is unequalled by any other camera today. 
Night photography, indoor, still life, portrait, 
architectural, press photography, aerial views, 
action shots, etc., have broad new possibilities 
with this range of shutter speeds, especially 
when used in combination with the new super 
soeed films. 


A new optical system provides for the magni- 
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range finder compensating for differences in 


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2. Over 300 accessories and attachments to 
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3. Built-in Short Base Range Finder gives you 
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4. 36 pictures from a single roll of standard 
cinema film. (Sharp negatives. Enlargements 
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5. Small, light, compact, fits the pocket. 

Write for free illustrated booklet “Why 

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booklet 126 giving complete information about 

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60 East 10th St. New York 

and of densitometric tests of all negative. 

I feel it worth pointing out, however, 
that densitometric data alone is not al- 
ways sufficient to guide the printing of 
the negative of a dramatic production, for 
such data alone will not always make 
allowance for light — and filter-efffects 
and similar special requirements. To my 
mind, the best method is to combine the 
scientifically accurate densitometric tests 
with visual tests, which — properly co- 
ordinated — can permit a combination of 


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scientific accuracy with artistic concep- 

It is also well known that all testing 
Continued on next page 


American Cinematographer • September 1933 

Continued from page 195 a uniformly high standard, and that, in 

equipment — sensitometers, densitome- many instances, some duplication of tests 
ters, and the like, must be maintained at by more than one individual is deisrable. 

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The Same Efficient Head 

For follow shots, known for 
their smoothness of opera- 
tion and equal tension on 
all movements. 

Unaffected by temper- 

Model A for Ama- 
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cameras. Attaches 
to any standard 
STILL tripod, $12.00. 

Trueball tripod 
heads are unexcelled 
for simplicity, ac- 
curacy and speed of 

The Hoefner four- 
inch Iris and Sun- 
shade combination 
is also a superior 

Likewise, uniformity of water-supply and 
chemical supplies have been discussed by 
other writers, too exhaustively to bear 
further repetition. The same holds true 
of the importance of a constant, uniform 
supply of electric current. In our estab- 
lishment, the laboratory has its own pow- 
er-line, which in turn drives specially 
controlled generators, automatically main- 
tained at an unwaveringly uniform out- 
put. In the event of power failure, an 
adequate steam-turbine-driven generator 
is maintained, with an automatic control 
so effective that failure of the outside 
power-supply from any cause will bring 
the emergency-generator into operation 
in less than three seconds. This emerg- 
ncy has seldom occurred; but these few 
rare instances have more than justified 
the expense of the installation. 

A further factor, not often mentioned, 
is absolute uniformity of projection fa- 
cilities. Many readers, I am sure, will 
have experienced at some time or other 
a greater or less difficulty due to a lack 
of such uniformity. A given day’s work 
may look satisfactory, for instance, in the 
inspection-rooms of the laboratory, and 
yet seem very poor when viewed in the 
studio’s projection-rooms under less per- 
fect conditions. To obviate this, the 
laboratory of the Warner Brothers’ stu- 
dios is constantly checking the projection 
equipment of every installation in the 
firm’s several studios. This is done not 
only with routine mechanical and optical 
methods, but also by the daily projec- 
tion of standard test-reels, both in the 
laboratory’s projection-room and in the 
many projection-rooms throughout the 
studios. By these methods, projectors, 
lenses, lamps, and screens are maintained 
at an unvarying, high standard. The 
same, of course, applies to the sound- 
equipment, as well. In fact, all of the 
methods outlined in this article are ap- 
plied to the sound-track quite as much 
as they are to the picture-negative and 

It is unfortunately impossible to dis- 
cuss this subject in such detail as would 
be desirable, as the space available is 
limited. The author hopes, none the less, 
that this brief outline may prove of value 
to some of its readers. It must be re- 
iterated, however, that this embodies but 
one man’s opinion: methods which have 
been rewarded with a gratifying degree 
of success, it is true, but which are by 
no means the only successful solution 
to the intricate problem of laboratory 
work. It is to be hoped that other lab- 
oratory workers will utilize these columns 
for an exposition of their methods, for 
only by such interchange of thought can 
this industry progress to the attainment 
of its goal of perfection. 

September 1933 • American Cinematographer 197 

Weight — Bell & Howell Camera with Maga- 
zine, 87 lbs. Dimensions — Base approxi- 
mately 12x12x12 inches. 





9 CAMERA “blimps” have served their purpose . . . they 
have retarded the flexibility of the camera . . . delayed lining- 
up .. . delayed operation . . . cost additional cartage . . . 
expensive to maintain. 

9 WE HAVE discarded the blimp. . . . Our “Reconstruction 
Silencing” gives you, in addition to its wonderful silence, pat- 
ented mechanical and optical features that are startling. 

9 OUR “Reconstruction Silencing” converts all standard 
BELL & HOWELL or MITCHELL cameras into silent, light 
weight, speedy, externally operated mechanism, meeting the 
requirements of modern recording without the use of the 

9 THE price is reasonable, for either BELL £r HOWELL or 
MITCHELL Cameras . . . $1750.00. 

• WRITE or phone for complete data or demonstration. 

Fried Camera Co. 

61 54 V 2 Santa Monica Blvd. Hollywood, Calif. 

Phone HEmpstead 6716 

Special Effect Use of Filters 

(Continued from Page 170) 

other rule. When you increase the con- 
trast of one color and reduce the contrast 
of the other color, you greatly increase 
the difference between the two colors, 
or greatly increase their relative contrast. 

If, however, the background in the il- 
lustrations were black instead of white, of 
course the contrast of the colors relative 
to the background would be just the re- 
verse, but the contrast of the colors to 
each other would remain the same. 

Let’s take as an instance a scene 
where the three primary colors are used, 
blue, green and red, and it is your de- 
sire to hold back the blue with a yellow 

filter, what will happen to the red and 

green? In the first place the contrast 

between the blue and the white will in- 
crease very rapidly as the density of the 
yellow filter is increased, however, the 
contrast of the red and green is not re- 
duced as rapidly as though a red filter 
were used. 

New Method of Camera- 

(Continued from Page 172) 
magnifiers, etc., are used; if a Bell cr 
Howell, the regular Bell & Howell focus- 
ing-tube and magnifiers. 

“Focusing is controlled by another lever 
at the rear of the camera, which moves 
the lens forward or back, and also oper- 
ates an indicator on the graduated focus- 
ing-scale at the rear of the camera. The 
regular focusing mount of the lens is 
unchanged, and may be used, as well. 
When both scales are set at infinity, the 
lens may be focused accurately by either 
scale, while for inserts, etc., the two fo- 
cusing movements may be used jointly, 
each extending the other’s range. When 
the image is focused, the controlling lever 
is turned back, the prism removed, and a 
light-trap in the focusing-tube closed. 
The fact that the focusing is done 
through the photographing lens, in regu- 
lar photographing position, and also that 
the lens moves only in a straight linear 
direction when it is focused, is of the 
utmost importance. There is no obstruc- 
tion between lens and film when in pho- 
tographing position. This arrangement 
allows for instantaneous, last-minute fo- 
cus and alignment observations, even 
while the camera is running: it is quite 
practical to keep the camera in focusing 
position, watching the image on the 
ground-glass, while the motor is picking 
up speed, and to flip it back to shooting 
position when the ‘speed’ signal comes 

“Other useful features of the device 
are a mechanical anti-buckling clutch 
which automatically disconnects the mo- 
tor-drive in case of trouble; a ratchet 
device on the drive-shaft, to provide 

against possible motor-reversal; accom- 
modation for hand-cranking, etc. 

“Used with a properly silent motor — 
such as the 48-cycle motors developed 
by John Arnold, A.S.C., at the Metro- 
Goldwyn- Mayer studios, a reconstruction- 
silenced camera is really silent, and, I 
believe, a marked improvement in every 
respect over the existing camera and 
blimp equipments generally used.” 

As stated earlier, the A. C. S.’s tests of 
this apparatus are now under way, and 

the report of the tests will shortly ap- 
pear in the American Cinematographer. 

Elect Fred M. Hall 

© Bell & Howell Company announce the 
election of Fred M. Hall as Vice-Presi- 
dent, in charge of their eastern offices, 
with headquarters in New York City. 

Mr. Hall has been with the Bell & 
Howell Company five years, first as trav- 
eling sales representative and then as 
manager of the company’s New York of- 


American Cinematographer • September 1933 


Handling the American Cinematographer 


Phoenix: Studio of Sound, P. O. Box 1671. 
Tucson: William M. Dennis, 22 United Bank 

Nogales: A. W. Lohn, 309 Morley Ave. 


Judsonia: Lee’s Novelty House. 


Berkeley: Berkeley Commercial Photo Co., 2515 
Bancroft Way. 

Beverly Hills: Bob Robinson Home Movies, 417 

N. Beverly Drive. 

Fresno: Potter Drug Co., 1112 Fulton Ave. 
Glendale: Kug Art Photo Service, 205 So. 

Brand Blvd. 

Hollywood: Bell & Howell Co., 716 North La- 
Brea Ave. 

Educational Projecto Film Co., 1611 North 
Cahuenga Blvd. 

Hollywood Camera Exchange, Ltd., 1600 N. 
Cahuenga Blvd. 

Hollywood Citizen, 6366 Hollywood Blvd. 
Hollywood Movie Supply Co., 6038 Sunset 

J. V. Merchant, 6331 Hollywood Blvd. 
Morgan Camera Shop, 6305 Sunset Blvd. 
Universal News Agency, 1655 Las Palmas. 
Los Angeles: California Camera Hospital, 321 

O. T. Johnson Bldg. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 643 So. Hill 

T. Iwata Art Store, 256 East First St. 
Lehnkering Pharmacy, 1 501 N. Western Ave. 
B. B. Nichols, 731 South Hope St. 
Tappenbeck & Culver, 10958 Weyburn Ave 
Westwood Village. 

Victor Animatograph Corp., 650 So. Grand 

Wilshire Personal Movies, 3150 Wilshire 

Monrovia: Cliff’s Photo Art Shop. 

North Hollywood: Studio City Pharmacy, 12051 
Ventura Blvd. 

Oakland: Adams & Co., 380 14th St 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1918 Broadway 
Pasadena: The Flag Studio, 59 East Colorado St 
Richard Fromme, 965 S. Fair Oaks 
A. C. Vroman, 329 East Colorado St. 
Richmond: La Moine Drug Co., 900 Macdonald 

Sacramento: Frank McDougal, 1017 10th St 
San Bernardino: Steele’s Photo Service 370 D 

San Diego: Harold E. Lutes, 958 Fifth St. 

Ace Drug Co., 820 W. Washington St. 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 419 Broadway. 
Sat 2, Francisco: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc 
216 Post St. 

Hirsch & Kaye, 239 Grant Ave. 

San Francisco Camera Exchange, 88 Third 

Schwabacher-Frey Stationery Co., 735 Mar- 
ket St. 

Sherman. Clay & Co., Kearnv & Sutter Sts 
Trainer-Parsons Optical Co., 228 Post Street 
San Jose: Webb’s Photo Supply Store, 66 So 
First St. 

San Rafael: Webb & Rogers, 4th & B Sts 
Santa Barbara: J. Walter Collinge, 1127 State 

The Camera Shoo, 800 State St 
Faulding’s. 623 State St. 

Stockton: The Holden Drug Co., Weber Ave 
& Sutter St. 

Logan Studios, 20 N. San Joaquin St. 


Denver: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 626 Six- 
teenth St. 

The May Co., 16th & Champa Sts. 


Bridgeport: Harvey & Lewis Co., 1148 Main 

Danbury: Heim’s Music Store, Inc., 221 Main 

Hartford: The D. G. Stoughton Co., 1255 S. 
Whitney St. 

Watkins Bros., 241 Asylum St. 

Meriden: Broderick & Curtin, 42 E. Main St. 
Middletown: F. B. Fountain Co., 483 Main St. 
New Haven: Eugene F. Clark Book Shop, 343 
Elm St. 

Norwich: Cranston Co., 25 Broadway. 
Waterbury: Curtis Art Co., 65 W. Main St. 


New Castle: E. Challenger & Son. 

Wilmington: Butler’s, Inc., 415 Market St. 
Wilmington Elec. Spec. Co., Inc., 405 Dela- 
ware Ave. 


Washington: Columbia Photo Supply Co., Inc., 
1424 New York Ave.,.N. W. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 607 14th St., 
N. W. 

Robbins, National Press Bldg., 529 14th St., 
N. W. 


Clearwater: Courtesy Cigar Store, Post Office 

Jacksonville: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 129 
W. Adams St. 

Miami: Miami Photo Supply Co., 31 S. E. 
First Ave. 

St. Petersburg: Robinson’s Camera Shop, 410 
Central Ave. 

Tampa: Burgert Bros., Inc., 608 Madison St. 


Atlanta: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 183 

Peachtree St. 


Boise: Ballou-Latimer Co., 9th & Idaho. 


Bloomington: Hawkins Studio, 214 W. Wash- 

Chicago: Aimer, Coe & Co., 105 N. Wabash 

Associated Film Libraries, Inc., Suite 224, 
190 N. State St. 

Bass Camera Co., 179 West Madison St. 
Central Camera Co., 230 S. Wabash Ave. 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 133 N. Wabash 

Fair, The, Camera Dept., 7th Floor, State- 
Adams-Dearborn Sts. 

Lake Shore Radio Co.. 3204-6 Broadway. 
Lyon & Healy, Inc., Wabash Ave. at Jack- 
son Blvd. 

Stanley Warren Co., 918 Irving Park Blvd. 
Norman Willets Co.. 318 W. Washington St. 
Wolk Camera Co., 201 S. Dearborn St. 
Evanston: Aimer, Coe & Co., 1645 Orrington 

Hattstrom & Sanders, Inc., 702 Church St. 
Galesburg: Illinois Camera Shop, 84 So. 

Prairie St. 

Moline: Seaholms Kodak Co., 1507 Fifth Ave. 
Rockford: Johnson Photo Shop, 316 E. State St. 
Springfield: Camera Shop, The, 320 S. Fifth St. 


Evansville: Smith & Butterfield, 310 Main St. 
Fort Wayne: The Howard Co., Inc., 112 W. 
Wayne St. 

Indianapolis: L. S. Ayers & Co., Dept. 290, 
1 West Washington St. 

South Bend: Ault Camera Shop, 122 S. Main St. 
Terre Haute: Snyder’s Art Store, 21 S. 7th St. 


Cedar Rapids: Camera Shop, 220 Third Ave. 
Davenport: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 318 
Brady St. 

Des Moines: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 808 
Locust St. 

Iowa City: Rexall & Kodak Store, 124 E. Col- 
lege St. 

Sioux City: Lynn’s Photo Finishing, Inc., 419 
Pierce St. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 608 Pierce St. 
Waterloo: Mack’s Photo Shop. 


Topeka: Hall Stationery Co., 623 Kansas Ave. 
Wichita: Jack Lewis Film Service, 329 Sedg- 
wick Building. 

Lawrence Photo Supply, 149 N. Lawrence 


Lexington: W. W. Still, 129 W. Short St 
Louisville: A. L. Bollinger Drug Co., Stilz & 
Frankfort Ave. 

Sutcliffe Co., 225 S. 4th Ave. 


Alexandria: The Newcomb Studios, 324 John- 

Monroe: Griffin Studios, P. O. Box 681. 

New Orleans: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 213 
Baronne St. 


Auburn: Wells Sporting Goods Co., 52-54 

Court St. 

Portland: Bicknell Photo Service, 43 Exchange 


Baltimore: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 309 N. 
Charles St. 

Stark-Films, 219 W. Centre St. 

Zepp Photo Supply Co., 3044 Greenmount 

Hagerstown: R. M. Hays & Bros., 2830 W. 
Washington St. 


Boston: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 38 Brom- 
field St. 

Boston Camera Exchange, 44 Bromfield St. 
Cinecraft Co., of New England, 80 Boyl- 
ston St. 

Ralph Harris Co., 30 Bromfield St. 

Iver Johnson Sporting Goods Co., 155 Wash- 
ington St. 

Andrew J. Lloyd Co., 300 Washington St. 
Pathescope Co. of the N. E., Inc., 438 Stuart 

Pinkham & Smith Co., 1 5 Bromfield St. 
Stillfilm Sales Co., 40 Stuart St. 

Braintree: Alves Photo Shop, 349 Washington 

Cambridge: E. M. F. Electrical Supply Co., 430 
Massachusetts Ave. 

Lowell: Donaldson’s, 75 Merrimack St. 

Lynn: Moehring’s, Inc., 490 Washington St. 
New Bedford: J. Arnold Wright, 7 S. Sixth St. 
Newtonville: Newton Photo Shop, 92 Bower St. 
Pittsfield: E. C. Kilian, 411 North St. 

Salem: Pitman Movie Service, 45 Summit Ave. 
Springfield: Harvey & Lewis Co., 1503 Main 

J. E. Cheney & Co., Inc., 301 Bridge St. 
Worcester: Harvey & Lewis Co., 513 Main St. 


Detroit: Crowley, Milner & Co. 

Clark Cine-Service, Rooms 203-204 Profes- 
sional Bldg., 10 Peterboro. 

Detroit Camera Shop, 424 Grand River W. 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1235 Wash- 
ington Blvd. 

H. C. Film Service. 12191 llene Ave. 

J. L. Hudson Co., Dept. 290. 

E. B. Meyrowitz, Inc., 1516 Washington 

Flint: Gardner Photo Service. 

Grand Rapids: Camera Shop Stores, Inc., 56 
Monroe Ave. 

Photo Service Shop, 44 Monroe Ave. 

Jackson: Royal Film Service, 125 Michigan 

Ave. W. 

Continued on page 200 

September 1933 • American Cinematographer 


Recent Patents 
Pertaining to 
Motion Pictures 

Compiled by 

Patent & Technical Information Service 
1336 New York Avenue N. W. 

Washington, D. C. 

July 4, 1933 

1,916,510. Electric System for Re- 
cording and Reproducing Sound. Edmund 
H. Hansen, New York, N. Y. The meth- 
od of photographically recording sound 
on moving film which comprises simul- 
taneously affecting the film with sound 
modulated light, and a second light 
source the intensity and frequency of 
which varies with the speed of an alter- 
nator driven by the same source that 
drives the film. 

July 11, 1933 

1,917,246. Production of Illusory Ef- 
fects. Thomas H. Faris, Washington, D. 
C. In the production of illusory effects, 
a succession of screen members arranged 
in front to rear succession and each hav- 
ing openings for the passage of light rays, 
said members forming a group adapted 
to provide an audience image plane in 
presence of still or moving picture pro- 
jection by a projecting apparatus serving 
as a source of portrayal on such plane, 
and means extending relatively angular 
to and in rear of the screen group for 
producing and directing ray emanations 
having their source in the projector rays 
and corresponding in tonal characteristics 
with those from the projecting appara- 
tus but of less intensity to cause such 
portrayal to present simulated stereo- 
scopic effects on such plane, said means 
being controlled as to activity by the 
light rays projected from said source of 
portrayal, said means including a plural- 
ity of pairs of reflecting members, one 
of the members of a pair having its sur- 
face in front to rear direction of the 
member extending angular to a line of 
incidence, the second member of the pair 
extending angular to the first member, 
the angularity of the two members being 
such as to permit access of source light 
rays to the reflecting surface of the sec- 
ond member only by reflection from the 


Manufacturers of 





Bring in 



Talk To 



Your Rental Problems 







Etc., Etc. 

Faxon Dean 


1515 Cahuenga Blvd. Hollywood, Calif. 

Phone GL-2404 Cable Address “Cameras’’ 

first member, and a screen element over- 
lying the reflecting surface of the second 

1,917,360. Film Printing. John G. 
Capstaff, Rochester, New York, assignor 
to Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, 
N. Y. In a process of making a print- 
on a continuous sensitive band from an- 
other band carrying images, the steps of 
exposing the first band to an actinic light 
from the second band, submitting the 
sensitive band to the action of a desen- 
sitizing bath, and then exposing the sen- 
sitive band area by area to a non-actinic 
light capable of lessening the effect of 
the first exposure, the intensity of the 
second exposure being controlled by the 
corresponding area of the image carrying 
band from which the first exposure was 

A F 1.8 

STRO F 2.3 




Negative Developing 
and Daily Print 

GRanite 3108 

Mitchell Camera Corporation 

665 North Robertson Blvd. 

West Hollywood, California 


Manufacturers of 







American Cinematographer • September 1933 

Continued from page 198 

Lansing: Linn Camera Shop, 109 S. Washing- 
ton Ave. 

Saginaw: Heavenrich Bros. & Co., 301 Genesee. 


Duluth: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 3 W. 
Superior St. 

LeRoy: Ivan E. Meyers, Home Movie Service, 
215 W. Main St. 

Minneapolis: Eastman Kodak Stores, 112-116 
So. Fifth St. 

Gospeter’s Blue Front, 1006 Nicollet Ave. 
National Camera Exchange, 5 South Fifth St. 
Owatonna: B. W. Johnson Gift Shop, 130 W. 
Bridge St. 

St. Paul: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., Kodak 
Bldg., 91 E. Sixth St. 

H. W. Fisher Photographic Supplies, 381 
Minnesota St. 


Kansas City: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 916 
Grand Ave. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1006 Main St. 
Hanley’s Photo Shop, 116 E. 1 0th St. 

Plaza Camera Co., 218 Alameda Rd. 

St. Louis: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1009 
Olive St. 

Famous-Barr Co., M. P. Dept. 6th & Olive St. 
Geo. D. Fisher & Co., 915 Locust St. 


Billings: Midland Drug Co., 23 N. 27th St. 
Bozeman: Alexander Art Co. 


Lincoln: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1217 

O St. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 419 S. 16th St. 
Omaha: J. G. Kretschmer & Co., 1617 Har- 
ney St. 


Lebanon: Photocraft Co. 

Newport: K. E. Waldron, 1 A Main St. 


Atlantic City: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 
1735 Boardwalk. 

Bayonne: Milton Mendelwager, 192 Ave. B. 

C I i f f side Park: Louis C. Ghiosay, 639 Anderson 

East Orange: Edmund J. Farlie Jr., 45 N. 19th 

Hawthorne: Hawthorne Home Movie Service, 
52 MacFarlan Ave. 

Irvington: Wolf Bros., 1340 Springfield Ave. 
Jersey City, Levy’s Sport Shop, 149 Monticello 

Montclair: Edward Madison Co., 42 Bloomfield 

Newark: Anspach Bros., 838 Broad St. 

Paterson: Robt. G. Smith, 40 Hamilton St. 

Sykes Drug Store, 179 Market St. 

Summit: Eastman Bookshop, 380 Springfield 

Trenton: Howard E. Thompson, 35 Newkirk 

Union City: Heraco Exchange, Inc., 611 Ber- 
genline Ave. 

West New York: Rembrandt Studios, Inc., 

526A Bergenline Ave. 


Santa Fe: Capital Pharmacy, Inc. 


Albany: Albany Photo Supply Co., Inc., 204 
Washington Ave. 

Binghamton: A. S. Bump Co., Inc., 180 Wash- 
ington St. 

Brooklyn: Geo. J. McFadden, Inc., 202 Flat- 
bush Ave. 

Abraham & Straus, Inc., Fulton & Hoyt Sts. 
J. Navilio, 1757 Broadway. 

Buffalo: Buffalo Photo Material Co., 37 Ni- 
agara St. 

Hauser Bob Studio, 11 West Tupper St. 

J. F. Adams, Inc., 459 Washington St. 
Nowak Optical Co. 

United Projector & Film Corp., 228 Franklin 

Goshen: T. H. Finan. 

Haverstraw: E. H. Vandenburgh. 3 Broadway. 
Hempstead: Agnew's, 47 Main St. 

Islip, H. L. Terry & Sons. 

Ithaca: Henry R. Head, 109 N. Aurora St. 
Long Island City: Leonard F. Kleinfield, 4202 
Queen’s Blvd. 

New Rochelle: Artist’s Photo Service, 219 
Hugenot St. 

New York City: Wm. C. Cullen, 12 Maiden 

Adam Archinal Corp., 305 W. 56th St. 

Ambercrombie & Fitch, 45th & Madison Ave. 
Bloomingdale’s, 59th & Lexington Ave. 

J. H. Boozer, 145 E. 60th St. 

Columbus Photo Supply Co., 146 Columbus 

Abe Cohen’s Exchange, 120 Fulton St. 
Davega, Inc., 1 1 1 East 42nd St. 

Davega, Inc., Empire State Building. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 356 Madison 
Ave. at 45th St. 

Fotoshop, Inc., 136 W. 32nd St. 

H. & D. Folsom Arms Co., 314 Broadway. 
Gall & Lembke, Inc., 7 East 48th St. 

Gillette Camera Stores, Inc., 117 Park Ave. 
Gimbel Bros., Dept. 575, 33rd St. & Broad- 

Joseph P. Hackel, 1919 Chanin Bldg., 122 
E. 42nd St. 

Harry’s Camera Exchange, 317 W. 50th St. 
Hecker’s Camera Store, 1519 Amsterdam 

Herbert & Huesgen Co., 18 E. 42nd St. 
Lugene, Inc., 600 Madison Ave., between 
57th & 58th. 

Luma Camera Service, Inc., 302 W. 34th St. 
Mogull Bros. Electric Corp’n., 1944 Boston 
Road, Bronx. 

Newman’s Camera Shop, 1197 Sixth Ave. 
New York Camera Exchange, 109 Fulton St. 
Pago, Inc., 1095 Sixth Ave. 

Pickup & Brown, 368 Lexington Ave. 

Rab Sons, 1373 Sixth Ave. 

Schoenig & Co., Inc., 8 East 42nd St. 

Sibley, Lindsay & Curr Co. 

Frank Tanham & Co., Inc., 9 Church St. 
Times Building News Stand, Inc., Times 

Willoughby’s, 110-112-114 West 32nd St. 
Richmond Hill: Josephson Bros., 10902 Ja- 
maica Ave. 

Rochester: Marks & Fuller, Inc., 36 East Ave. 

Smith, Surrey, Inc., 129 Clinton Ave., South. 
Rome: Fitchard Studio, 133-135 W. Liberty St. 
Schenectady: J. T. & D. B. Lyon, 236 State 

Syracuse: Geo. F. Lindemer, 443 S. Salina St. 

Francis Hendricks Co., Inc., 339 So. Warren 
Troy: A. M. Knowlson & Co., 350 Broadway. 

Utica: Edwin A. Hahn, 223-225 Columbia St. 
Yonkers: W. J. Dolega, 242 Nepperham Ave. 


Charlotte: W. I. Van Ness & Co., 213 N. 
Tryon St. 


Akron: Pockrandt Photo Supply Co., 16 N. 
Howard St. 

Canton: Ralph Young News Agency. 

The Camera Shop, 531 Market Ave. N. 
Cincinnati: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 27 
West Fourth St. 

Huber Art Co., 124 Seventh St., W. 

John L. Huber Camera Shop, 416>/2 Main St. 
L. M. Prince Co., 108 W. Fourth St. 
Cleveland: The Home Movies, Inc., 2025 

Euclid Ave. 

Dodd Co., 652 Huron Road. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 806 Huron 
Road, 1862 E. 6th St„ 1915 E. 9th St., 
Union Trust Bldg. 

Escar Motion Picture ervice, Inc., 10008 
Carneigie Ave. 

Halle Bros. Co., 1228 Euclid Ave. 

Higbee Co., 90 Public Square. 

Columbus: Capitol Camera Co., 7 E. Gay St. 
Columbus Photo Supply, 62 E. Gay St. 
Home Movies Co., 234 S. High St. 

Don McAllister Camera Co., 73 E. State St. 
Dayton: Dayton Camera Shop, 1 Third St., 

Middletown: Lee R. Chamberlain, care Roy A. 

White’s Elec. Shop, 48 S. Broad St. 
Portsmouth: V. E. Fowler, 824 Galia St. 
Salem: Butcher’s Studio, 166 South Broadway. 
Steubenville: Beall & Steele Drug Co., 424 
Market St. 

Toedo: Gross Photo Supply Co., 325 Superior 

Franklin Print & Eng. Co., 226-36 Huron St. 
Youngstown: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 7 
Wick Ave. 

A. C. Saunders, 177 Benita Ave. 

Zanesville: Zulandt’s Drug Store, Widney, cor. 
Seventh & Main. 


Oklahoma City: H. O. Davis, 522 N. Broadway. 
Tulsa: Camera Shoppe, Inc., and the Charles 
High Productions, 1213 S. Boulder Ave. 


Lakeview: Getty’s Photo Studio, I.O. O.F. Bldg., 
Center & Main Sts. 

Marshfield: Mel’s News Stand, cor. Broadway 
& Anderson. 

Pendleton: J. T. Snelson, 608 Gardner St. 
Portland: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 345 
Washington St. 

Lipman-Wolfe & Co., Kodak Dept., Fifth, 
Washington & Alder Sts. 

Meier & Frank Co., Kodak Dept., Fifth, Sixth, 
Morrison & Alder Sts. 


Allentown: M. S. Young & Co., 736-40 Ham- 
ilton St. 

Easton: Easton Sporting Goods Co., 2nd and 
Northampton St. 

Erie: Kelly Studios, 1026-28 Peach St. 
Harrisburg: James Lett Co., 225 N. 2nd St. 
Johnstown: Johnstown News Co., 115 Market 

Lancaster: Pugh’s Art Shoppe, 33 W. King St. 
Langhorne: National Entertainment Service, 

360 Bellevue Ave. 

Lebanon: Harpel’s, 757-9 Cumberland St. 
Philadelphia: Klein & Goodman, 18 South 

Tenth St. 

Camera Shop, 51 N. 52nd St. 

G. P. Darrow Co., Inc., 5623-5 Germantown 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1020 Chestnut 

Home Movies Studio, 20th & Chestnut Sts. 
MacCallum Stores, 1600 Sansom St. 

M. & H. Sporting Goods Co., 512 Market St. 
Newsreel Laboratory, 1 707 Sansom St. 
Strawbridge & Clothier, Dept. 201, Market, 
Eighth & Filbert Sts. 

George W. Tegan, 420 E. Mt. Airy Ave. 
John Wanamaker's Motion Picture Dept., 
No. 1 Broad St. 

Williams, Brown & Earle, Inc., 918 Chest- 
nut St. 

Pittsburgh: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 606 
Wood St. 

B. K. Elliott & Co., 126 - 6th St. 

Joseph Horne Co., Magazine Dept. 
Kaufmann Dept. Store, Inc., Dept. 62, Fifth 

Reading: W. F. Drehs, 541 Court St. 

Scranton: Houser’s, 133 N. Main Ave. 

Wallace & Cook, Inc., 2-5 N. Washington 

Scranton Home Movies Library, 316 N. 
Washington Ave. 

Shamokin: Jones Hardware Co., 115 E. Inde- 
pendence St. 

Wilkes Barre: Ralph DeWitt, 2 South River 

Windber: New Arts Feature, 508 - 15th St. 
York: Sweigart’s Photo Service Shop, 278 W. 
Market St. 


Pawtucket: Thomas N. Simpson, Broadway & 
Exchange St. 

Providence: E. P. Anthony, Inc., 178 Angell St. 
Starkweather & Williams, Inc., 47 Exchange 

Westcott, Slade & Balcom Co., 95-99 Empire 


Jackson: Southern Pictures Corp. 

Knoxville: Jim Thompson Co., 415 W. Church 

Memphis: Memphis Photo Supply Co., 122 
Union Ave. 

Nashville: Geo. C. Dury Co., 420 Union St. 


Abilene: W. C. Cosby, 249 Pine St. 

Dallas: Jamieson Film Laboratories, 2212 Live 
Oak St. 

E. G. Marlow Co., 1610 Main St. 

Fort Worth: The Camera Shop, Inc., 113 W. 
Sixth St. 

Chas. G. Lord Optical Co., 704 Main St. 
Houston: Star Elec. & Eng. Co., Inc., 613 
Fannin St. 

San Antonio: Fox Co., 209 Alamo Plaza. 


Salt Lake City: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. 

3 1 5 S. Main St. 


Norfolk: G. L. Hall Optical Co., 257 Granby St 
Richmond: G. L. Hall Optical Co., 418 E. 
Grace St. 


Burlington: G. W. La Pierre’s, 71 Church St. 


Bellingham: Clyde Banks, 119 W. Holly St. 

Continued on Page 202 

September 1933 0 American Cinematographer 201 




Camera Craft gath- 
ers beauty, facts, 
fundamentals and 
all sorts of interest- 
ing information from 
all over the world to 
keep its readers fully 
informed. It has a 
Cine Department 
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curiosity films from all parts of the 
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Send us description and length of 
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subject accepted. 

We have for sale negative and posi- 
tive short ends, both Eastman and 

Continental Film Craft, Inc. 

1611 Cosmo St. Hollywood, Calif. 

1,918,102. Film Sound Record Ap- 
paratus. Clarence W. Hewlett, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., assignor to General Electric 
Company, New York. Film sound rec- 
ord apparatus comprising film driving 
means, optical means for directing a nar- 
row light beam on a film driven thereby, 
a support for the optical means mounted 
for movement transversely of the film, 
electromagnetic means for shifting said 
support to each of a plurality of prede- 
termined positions and contact means in 
circuit with said electromagnetic means 
adapted to be bridged by a conducting 
member on said film. 

1,918,488. Apparatus for Projecting 
Motion Pictures. Gerald F. Rackett, Los 
Angeles, Calif., assignor to Association of 
Motion Picture Producers, Inc., Los An- 
geles, Calif. The combination compris- 
ing a lens, a pair of small light refracting 
prisms positioned in operative relation 
with the lens, the prisms being normally 
positioned at an angle to one another 
with the apex of the acute angle of one 
prism being positioned adjacent to a base 
angle of the other prism, pivotal means 
mounting the adjacent ends of the prisms 
and means for moving the prisms about 
their pivots to increase or decrease the 
angle between the prisms. 

July 25, 1933 

1 ,91 9,364. Method of and Means for 
Scoring Motion Pictures. William E. Gar- 
ity, Los Angeles, Calif., assignor to Roy 
O. Disney, Los Angeles, Calif. A method 
of producing accurately timed sound rec- 
ords for use with motion picture films, 
comprising aurally imparting time signals 
to a sound source without causing said 
signals to be audible to observers, said 
signals being timed in accordance with 
the normal speed of projection of the 
film for which the sound record is to be 
made, and recording sounds produced by 
said sound source in response to said sig- 

1,919,673. Photographic Relief. Leon- 
ard T. Troland and Roland D. Eaton, 
Cambridge, Mass., assignors by mesne 
assignments, to Technicolor, Inc., New 
York, N. Y. The method of controlling 
the dye-absorbing properties of a photo- 
graphic film which comprises treating the 
latent image of a silver haloid emulsion 
in a hardening developing solution, oxi- 
dizing the solution remaining in the gela- 
tine and not consumed for development, 
in a separate bath to a predetermined 
degree, thereby regulating the thickness 
of a layer of relatively non-dye-absorbing 
gelatine produced by said oxidation proc- 
cess and filling the interstices between 
image forming dye-absorbent gelatine 
particles produced by the developing so- 
lution, in relation to the depth of the 
layer formed by said dye-absorbent par- 


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179 W. Madison St., Chicago, III. 


American Cinematographer 9 September 1933 

Pullman: Craves Studio. 

Seattle: Anderson Supply Co., 1 1 1 Cherry St. 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1415 - 4th Ave. 
Lowman & Hanford Co., 1514 - 3rd Ave. 
Spokane: John W. Graham & Co., Dept. C, 707 
Sprague Ave. 

Joyner Drug Co., Howard & Riverside Ave. 
Tacoma: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 910 


Walla Walla: Book Nook Drug & Stationery 


Wheeling: Twelfth St. Oarage, 81 - 12th St. 


Fond du Lac: Huber Bros., 36 S. Main St. 

La Crosse: Moen Photo Service, 313 Main St. 
Madison: Photoart House, 212 State St. 
Milwaukee: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 737 
N. Milwaukee St. 

Boston Store, Wisconsin Ave. & 4th St. 

W. E. Brown, 327 W. National Ave. 

Cimbel Bros., E. Wisconsin & N. Planking- 

Roa Meuer, The, 226 West Wells St. 
Phillips: Jakoubek's’, 132 N. Lake Ave. 

Racine: Photo-Crafts Shop, 526 College Ave. 


Melbourne: McGills Agency, 179-218 Eliza- 
beth St. 


Canton: International Book Co., 269 North 
Wing Hon Road. 


London: J. H. Dallmeyer, Ltd., 31 Mortimer 
St. and Oxford St. W. I. 


Honolulu: Eastman Kodak Stores, 1059 Fort 


Bombay: Continental Photo Stores, 255 Hornby 

P. C. Eranee Sons, Albert Bldgs., Hornby 

Calcutta: Photographic Stores & Agency Co., 
154 Dhuramtolla St. 

M. L. Shaw, 5/1 Dhuramtolla St. 

Lucknow: Lucknow Commercial Co., 25 Amina- 
bad Park. 


American Photo Supply Co. S.A., Av. F.l, 
Madero, 43, Mexico, D.F. 


Warsaw: Polska Agencia Prasy Filmowej 

Wspolna 35. 


Buenos Aires: Argentine Rep., Casa America 
Ltda. S. A. Avenda de Mavo 959. 

Davidge Plans New Labora- 
tory and Finance Company 

• According to current reports, Roy Dav- 
idge will enlarge his Hollywood labora- 
tory activities to include the financing 
of independent productions and the con- 
struction of a new plant at Bronson and 
Santa Monica Boulevard, Hollywood. The 
new organization will be known as Roy 
Davidge, Inc., and has Davidge as presi- 
dent; L. E. Davidge, vice-president; Earl 
Rodman, secretary, and John Jasper, 
treasurer and business manager. 

Davidge’s new film processing system, 
called the “wheel and blanket’’ method, 
has been perfected by him, according to 
announcements, after four years of re- 
search and experimentation. It is claimed 
the method is fully patented and will be 
installed in the new plant. 

A major producing company is claimed 
to be negotiating with the new Davidge 
Company to give that organization its 



Rates: Four cents a word. Minimum charge, 
one dollar per insertion. 


FOR RENT — Mitchell Motor, 25 M.M. Lenses, 
1000 feet Mitchell Magazines, Baby Tripod. 
J. R. Lockwood, Glendale. Phone Douglas 
3361 -W. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed gear box 
complete. Pliny Horne, 1318 N. Stanley. 
HO-7682 or HO-9431. 


FOR SALE OR RENT— Mitchell and Bell & 
Howell silenced cameras, follow focus Pan 
lenses, free head, corrected new aperture. 
Akeley, DeBrie, Pathe, Universal, Prevost, 
Willart, DeVry, Eyemo, Sept, Leica. Motors, 
Printers, lighting equipment. Also every 
variety of 16mm and still cameras and 
projectors. Everything photographic bought, 
so|d, rented and repaired. Send for our 
bargain catalogue. Open 8 A.M. to 10 P.M. 
Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1 600 Cahuenga 
Blvd. Phone: HO-3651 ; Cable address 



FOR RENT — Thoroughly silenced Mitchell cam- 
eras, Pan Astro lenses, follow focus. J. R. 
Lockwood, Glendale. Douglas 3361 -W. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed camera with 
latest 40, 50 and 75 mm. Pan-Astro lenses. 
1000 ft. magazines; loose head, tripod. 
Pliny Horne, 1318 N. Stanley. HO-7682 or 


FOR SALE — Bell & Howell adapter for Mitchell 
Tripod head, 40-50-75-M.M. Astro lenses 
mounted and unmounted, Mitchell tripod 
head, Mitchell matte box. J. R. Lockwood, 
523 N. Orange St., Glendale, Calif. Doug- 
las 3361 -W. 

FOR SALE OR TRADE: Pathe Field Camera, 
electrically equipped, 400 ft. inside maga- 
zines, 2 in. Kline, 3 in. Goerz hypar, out- 
side parts chromium plated, Tripod, head 
used as regular or friction. Like new. With 
trunk. Photo on request. $225 or best offer. 
P. O. Box 1457, Tampa, Fla. 

work. It is also asserted a tie-up is be- 
ing effected with a New York concern 
to handle the release printing. 

Hal Hopper, of Cinema Mercantile, 
who has been a figure in production fi- 
nancing, is said to be a stockholder of 
this newly-formed company. This, to- 
gether with the fact that Phil Coldstone, 
who has been financing independents and 
who has had his work done by Davidge, 
would indicate a formidable set-up for 
this newly-formed company. 

16 mm. for Closed Theatres 

• According to reports emanating from 

New York City, there is in formation 
a corporation for the furnishing of 16 
mm. sound pictures to approximately 
2,000 theatres now closed. 

The plan calls for portable projectors 
with a complete program on a 4,000- 
foot reel, consisting of feature, cartoon 
and travelogue. It is anticipated a show 
of this nature will call for a rental of 
from $10 to $20. 


FOR SALE — 35 MM. Pathe Studio Camera, 1 
f:3.5 Krauss Tessar; carrying case; three 
magazines, $100. Universal Tripod with 
carrying-case, $75. Box S, American Cinema- 
tographer, 1222 Guaranty Bldg., Hollywood. 

USED BARGAINS — Bell & Howell, 70DA Cooke 
FI. 8 with hand crank, $195; 35mm. 7-inch 
projector lens, $10.00; B & H 57-G projec- 
tor with case, $75.00. Trades accepted. Li- 
brary Film 2c foot 16mm. Send for 50-page 
bargain catalogue. Mogull Brothers, 1944-F 
Boston Road, New York City. 

AKELEY CAMERA- — -Practically new, rebuilt for 
color; 40mm. and 50mm. lenses; 10 maga- 
zines; cases; tripod, etc. Cost $5,000 — will 
se|| for $1,250. Box R.W.S. care American 

You want The Cinematographic Annual • 


FOR SALE — lea “Monopol” semi-portable 35 
MM. projector, complete with carrying-cases 
and extra carbons. Box S, care American 

FOR SALE — Special complete 16 mm. editor 
with geared rewinds, magnifier and splicer, 
$4.50 plus postage. Money refunded if not 
satisfactory. FOTOSHOP, 136 West 32nd 
St., New York City. 


WANTED — 1 6 mm. Projector, Camera, Leica 
and other equipment. Must be in good con- 
dition and cheap. T. E. Rogers, 551 S. Kings- 
ley, Los Angeles, Calif. 

WANTED — DeVry 35mm. Hand-camera, double- 
claw movement. Must be cheap and in 
good condition. Box C, care American 

WANTED — Motor adapter. J. R. Lockwood, 
Glendale. Douglas 3361 -W. 

WANTED — Mitchell High Speed Silent Camera, 
box only, without equipment. Must be 
cheap for cash. Box 1 40, American Cinema- 

WANTED — “Leica” enlarger; must be in good 
condition and cheap. Box H.R., care Ameri- 
can Cinematographer. 

544 pages of valuable information ® 

It is the contention that these 16 mm. 
programs will not interfere with the pro- 
fessional sized pictures and that nego- 
tiations are going on with Paramount 
and Fox for releases. 

New DeVry Sound Camera 

• Herman A. DeVry, well known as the 
head of H. A. DeVry, Inc., and de- 
signer of the recently announced DeVry 
light-weight sound-camera, has just an- 
nounced a new model of his already 
popular equipment, which is adapted to 
either single-system or double-system 
sound-recording, and also for bi-pack 
color photography with sound. Only a 
few pounds, according to Mr. DeVry, 
have been added to the weight of the 
original outfit, which, it will be remem- 
bered, tipped the scales at less than 1 50 
pounds complete. The slight added 
weight is said to be due to the larger 
bi-pack magazines or the 1000-foot 
magazines used when making black-and- 
white sound pictures. 




NR A 100 Percent 

We Do Our Part 

Everything You Need . . . 

. . . comes to you in Eastman 
Super-sensitive "Pan" . . . Versatility that 
virtually knows no bounds . . . Uniformity 
you can bank on every day in the year 
. . . Final results that give expression to 
your art as no other film can. You need 
this famous Eastman film as your nega- 
tive medium . . . Brulatour service comes 
with it, free. J. E. Brulatour, Inc., New 
York, Chicago, Hollywood. 




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Mitchell Camera Corporation 

Cable Address “MITCAMO” 


Phone OXford 1051